IMPULSIVITY THE BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCE OF DISCOUNTING

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Impulsivity

Author : Gregory Jude Madden
ISBN : 1433804778
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 67.9 MB
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Impulsivity explores the basis for the seemingly universal tendency to devalue rewards or punishments that are not immediately available. When confronted with any number of modern impulsive behaviorssuch as drug use, pathological gambling, marital infidelity, and gluttonyindividuals have a choice with two outcomes: an immediate benefit, such as getting high, or a delayed or probabilistic benefit, such as health, money saved, or the satisfaction of a good life. This volume is an approachable, comprehensive overview of the behavioral science and neuroscience of these impulsive choices and their relation to delay discounting--the tendency to devalue temporally distant rewards or punishments, even though they may greatly outbalance the immediate benefit of our choices. The cutting-edge researchers who contributed to this volume have documented cross-species similarities in impulsive decision making and pioneered the neuroscience of impulsive choice. In this text they provide insights into harmless impulsive acts as well as those that dominate and destroy lives. The contributors tackle key issues such as whether impulsivity and risk taking are a trait or state; the neuroscience, neuroeconomics, and computational modeling of neural systems underlying impulsivity; and the relation between impulsivity and addictions, health decision making, altruism, and attention-deficit disorder. Theoretical debates regarding the origins of impulsivity round out this text, which will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in psychology, behavioral economics, psychopharmacology, behavioral analysis and therapy, and the science of decision making.
Category: Psychology

Behavioral Sport Psychology

Author : James K. Luiselli
ISBN : 1461400708
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 60.98 MB
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Sport psychology is a topic of growing interest. Many professionals read journals such as The International Journal of Sports, Journal of Sport Behavior, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, and The Sport Psychologist. In August 2008, Monitor on Psychology, the monthly publication of the American Psychological Association (APA), featured a special issue on sport psychology. Indeed, Division 47 of APA is devoted to "the scientific, educational, and clinical foundations of exercise and sport psychology." The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) convene conferences each year to present scientific findings and new developments in a rapidly expanding field. The AAASP and other organizations also qualify professionals as certified sport and exercise psychology consultants. Finally, a visit to any bookstore will reveal the lay public’s fascination with sports, as revealed in numerous self-help books and guides to perfecting athletic performance. Behavioral psychologists have studied sport psychology for more than three decades (Martin, Thompson, & Regehr, 2004). Applied behavior analysis (ABA), in particular, has been an instrumental approach to behavioral coaching in many sports, including baseball (Osborne, Rudrud, & Zezoney, 1990), basketball (Pates, Cummings, & Maynard, 2002), figure skating (Ming & Martin, 1996), football (Ward & Carnes, 2002), golf (Pates, Oliver, & Maynard, 2001), ice hockey (Rogerson & Hrycaiko, 2002), soccer (Brobst & Ward, 2002), swimming (Hume & Crossman, 1992), and tennis (Allison & Ayllon, 1980). ABA stresses the application of learning theory principles, objective measurement of athletic skills, controlled outcome evaluation, and socially significant behavior-change. Cognitive behavior therapy, or CBT, also has been a dominant approach to psychological intervention in sports (Meyers, Whelan, & Murphy, 1996; Weinberg & Comar, 1994). CBT addresses athletic performance through cognitive-change methods combined with behavioral practice and environmental modifications. The purpose of the book described in this proposal is to compile the most recent experimental and applied research in behavioral sport psychology. Several journal articles have reviewed critical dimensions of behavioral sport psychology (Martin et al., 2004; Martin, Vause, & Schwartzman, 2005) but no book has covered the topic with an emphasis on ABA and CBT methodology and practice. Accordingly, Behavioral Sport Psychology: Evidence-Based Approaches to Performance Enhancement is a first of its kind volume.
Category: Psychology

Self Control In Animals And People

Author : Michael Beran
ISBN : 9780128125090
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39.25 MB
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Self-Control in Animals and People takes an interdisciplinary look at what self-control is, how it works, and whether humans are alone as a species in their ability to demonstrate self-control. The book outlines historical and recent empirical approaches to understanding when self-control succeeds and fails, and which species may share with humans the ability to anticipate better future outcomes. It also provides readers with in-depth explorations of whether various species can delay gratification, the ways in which people and animals exhibit other forms of self-control, what influences the capacity and expression of self-control, and much more. In addition to its comprehensive coverage of self-control research, the book also describes self-control assessment tests that can be used with young children, adults, and a wide variety of nonhuman species, with the goal of making fair and clear comparisons among the groups. This combination makes Self-Control in Animals and People a valuable resource for cognitive, developmental, and clinical psychologists, philosophers, academic students and researchers in psychology and the social sciences, and animal behaviorists. Provides a comprehensive perspective of the evolutionary emergence of self-control across species Explores different "kinds" of self-control and their links to one another, and whether self-control can be improved or strengthened Offers insight on mental time travel (chronesthesia) and how it relates to self-control Demonstrates how to develop self-control tests for human and nonhuman animals, and how to make fair and clear comparisons among those groups
Category: Psychology

Handbook Of Developments In Consumer Behaviour

Author : Victoria Wells
ISBN : 9781781005125
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 65.46 MB
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This Handbook examines the area of consumer behaviour from the perspective of current developments and developing areas for the discipline, to new opportunities that comprehend the nature of consumer choice and its relationship to marketing. Consumer research incorporates perspectives from a spectrum of long-established sciences: psychology, economics and sociology. This Handbook strives to include this multitude of sources of thought, adding geography, neuroscience, ethics and behavioural ecology to this list. Encompassing scholars with a passion for researching consumers, this Handbook highlights important developments in consumer behaviour research, including consumer culture, impulsivity and compulsiveness, ethics and behavioural ecology. It examines evolutionary and neuroscience perspectives as well as consumer choice. Undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers in marketing with interests in consumer behaviour will find this enriching resource invaluable.
Category: Business & Economics

Exploring Gender And Sex Differences In Behavioral Dyscontrol From Drug Addiction To Impulse Control Disorders

Author : Liana Fattore
ISBN : 9782889198337
Genre :
File Size : 48.63 MB
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Males and females exhibit discrete attitudes and skills, experience dissimilar emotional and psychological needs, and react differently to peer pressure, lack of self-realization, or other personal and social expectations. In addition, they are differently influenced by family history, and diverge in the perception of self-image and health risks. To complicate the matter on gender dichotomy, male testosterone levels markedly vary over the course of the day, while female levels of sex hormones significantly fluctuate depending upon the menstrual cycle, the pre- or post-menopausal age, and the use of oral contraceptives. All of these factors interact with genetic background and sex hormonal fluctuations, and determine the differences observed in their predisposition to develop an addiction. This term is traditionally associated to the abuse of legal and illegal substances. However, a compulsion toward the engagement in a non-drug-related rewarding behavior, usually involving a natural reward, also activates the brain reward system and engenders persistent behavior, thus resulting in a diminished control over it. These latter behaviors are defined as “behavioral addictions”. This definition encompasses any behavior characterized by the followings: i) feeling of tension or arousal before the action; ii) gratification and/or relief at the time of performing the act; iii) inability to resist an urge or drive even against great obstacles or dangers; iv) absence of consideration for the negative consequences that may affect family, friends, and/or work. As such, behavioral addictions include compulsive food intake and sexual activity, pathological gambling and Internet addiction, excessive exercising, compulsive buying and pyromania. These behaviors, which are often classified as "impulse control disorders", result in actions that are harmful to oneself and/or others, share common features (e.g. compulsiveness, impulsivity, impaired decision-making, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, high rates of relapse), and involve dysfunction of several brain circuits. Derangement from functional neurobiological mechanisms underpinning both sensitivity to reward and inhibitory control can also lead to compulsive behaviors. For instance, pathological gambling and other impulse control disorders (e.g., hypersexuality, compulsive painting, eating and buying) are often reported in Parkinson's disease patients. Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g. sex, food) or activities (e.g. gambling, exercising). The goal of the present Research Topic is to explore and summarize current evidence for gender (and sex) differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviors. Thus, it will include studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Psychiatric comorbidity, potential risk factors and the underlying neural mechanisms will be also examined, with particular emphasis to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive and compulsive behaviors.
Category:

The Escape Of The Mind

Author : Howard Rachlin PhD
ISBN : 9780199322374
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 62.92 MB
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The Escape of the Mind is part of a current movement in psychology and philosophy of mind that calls into question what is perhaps our most basic, most cherished, and universally accepted belief--that our minds are inside of our bodies. Howard Rachlin adopts the counterintuitive position that our minds, conscious and unconscious, lie not where our firmest (yet unsupported) introspections tell us they are, but in how we actually behave over the long run. Perhaps paradoxically, the book argues that our introspections, no matter how positive we are about them, tell us absolutely nothing about our minds. The name of the present version of this approach to the mind is "teleological behaviorism." The approaches of teleological behaviorism will be useful in the science of individual behavior for developing methods of self-control and in the science of social behavior for developing social cooperation. Without in any way denigrating the many contributions of neuroscience to human welfare, The Escape of the Mind argues that neuroscience, like introspection, is not a royal road to the understanding of the mind. Where then should we look to explain a present act that is clearly caused by the mind? Teleological behaviorism says to look not in the spatial recesses of the nervous system (not to the mechanism underlying the act) but in the temporal recesses of past and future overt behavior (to the pattern of which the act is a part). But scientific usefulness is not the only reason for adopting teleological behaviorism. The final two chapters on IBM's computer, Watson (how it deviates from humanity and how it would have to be altered to make it human), and on shaping a coherent self, provide a framework for a secular morality based on teleological behaviorism.
Category: Psychology

Das Ethische Gehirn

Author : Wolfgang Seidel
ISBN : 9783827421654
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 23.23 MB
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Die Frage, ob der Mensch nun einen autonomen freien W- len hat oder nicht, ist seit Jahrhunderten ein zentraler D- kussionspunkt zwischen Geistes- und Naturwissenschaft. Allerdings: Wenn ich Bekannte frage, sind sie ohne Ausnahme von der Freiheit ihres Willens überzeugt. Ist der Widerspruch gegen dieses allgemeine Votum nur eine Spitz ndigkeit der Neurowissenschaft? Oder gar ein Fehlschluss? Mich hat die Frage als Student gelegentlich beschäftigt. - mals machte mein Vater mit mir meist am Sonntagnachm- tag einen langen Waldspaziergang. Ausführlich p egten wir Probleme, die in der Woche aufgefallen waren, zu diskutieren, und so auch dieses. Mein Vater, der neben Zoologie außerdem Philosophie studiert hatte, verteidigte eine metaphysische Sphäre im Menschen. Ich argumentierte aus der Warte des Medizinstudenten wohl etwas hart, wenn ich dem gegenüber den Menschen samt seinem Denken und Fühlen als das a- schließliche Produkt der Evolution sah. Später in meinem Beruf als Chirurg blieb ich einfach dabei, die mechanistische Theorie von der Funktionsweise der - neren Organe, mit denen ich es zu tun hatte, auf den ganzen Menschen und damit auf alle Hirnfunktionen auszudehnen.
Category: Philosophy

Choice

Author :
ISBN : UCSC:32106019978219
Genre : Best books
File Size : 57.55 MB
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Category: Best books

Encyclopedia Of Behavioral Neuroscience

Author :
ISBN : 9780080914558
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87.32 MB
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Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists
Category: Psychology