HUMAN FACTORS IN SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS SECOND EDITION

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Human Factors In Simple And Complex Systems Second Edition

Author : Robert W. Proctor
ISBN : 142006360X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69.10 MB
Format : PDF
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In terms of simple and complex systems, it is a whole new world out there. At the initial publication of this book, fourteen years ago, the web was in its infancy, DVDs did not exist, cell phones were few and far between, and the information superhighway was just a blip upon the horizon. If you used the terms "social engineering," you were most likely a political scientist, and if you were "phishing" you might be listening to a rock band. The second edition of a bestseller, Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems provides the necessary understanding of the breadth and depth of human factors issues that influence the design, implementation, and evaluation of products and systems. Emphasizing the close relationship between basic theory and application, the authors delineate a framework for the research process, present an integrated view of the current state of knowledge, and examine how these factors can be applied to system design. The new edition addresses such concepts as situation awareness and highlights topics of interest, with a special focus on computer applications and human-computer interaction. See what’s new in the Second Edition New topics, such as situational awareness, that capture the tremendous changes in human factors and ergonomics Tightly integrates basic research and application, strengthening the link between knowledge and practice Each chapter includes a separate box that discusses a topic of current interest related to human interaction with computers and recent technology Demonstrating a general approach to solving a broad range of system problems, the book provides coverage of the theoretical foundation on which the discipline of human factors is built. Structured around human information processing, it covers the full range of contemporary human factors and ergonomics, then shows you how to apply them.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Human Factors In Simple And Complex Systems Third Edition

Author : Robert W. Proctor
ISBN : 9781482229592
Genre : Computers
File Size : 87.13 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Recently, there have been a number of advances in technology, including in mobile devices, globalization of companies, display technologies and healthcare, all of which require significant input and evaluation from human factors specialists. Accordingly, this textbook has been completely updated, with some chapters folded into other chapters and new chapters added where needed. The text continues to fill the need for a textbook that bridges the gap between the conceptual and empirical foundations of the field.
Category: Computers

Mind Machine And Morality

Author : Peter A. Hancock
ISBN : 9781351917452
Genre : Computers
File Size : 82.61 MB
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Technology is our conduit of power. In our modern world, technology is the gatekeeper deciding who shall have and who shall have not. Either technology works for you or you work for technology. It shapes the human race just as much as we shape it. But where is this symbiosis going? Who provides the directions, the intentions, the goals of this human-machine partnership? Such decisions do not derive from the creators of technology who are enmeshed in their individual innovations. They neither come from our social leaders who possess only sufficient technical understanding to react to innovations, not to anticipate or direct their progress. Neither is there evidence of some omnipotent 'invisible hand,' the simple fact is that no one is directing this enterprise. In Mind, Machine and Morality, Peter Hancock asks questions about this insensate progress and has the temerity to suggest some cognate answers. He argues for the unbreakable symbiosis of purpose and process, and examines the dangerous possibilities that emerge when science and purpose meet. Historically, this work is a modern-day child of Bacon's hope for the 'Great Instauration.' However, unlike its forebear, the focus here is on human-machine systems. The emphasis centers on the conception that the active, extensive face of modern philosophy is technology. Whatever we are to become is bound up not only in our biology but critically in our technology also. And to achieve rational progress we need to articulate manifest purpose. This book is one step along the purposive road. Drawing together his many seminal writings on human-machine interaction and adapting these works specifically for this collection, Peter Hancock provides real food for thought, delighting readers with his unique philosophical perspective and outstanding insights. This is theoretical work of the highest order and will open minds accordingly.
Category: Computers

Introduction To Complexity And Complex Systems

Author : Robert B. Northrop
ISBN : 9781439894989
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46.25 MB
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The boundaries between simple and complicated, and complicated and complex system designations are fuzzy and debatable, even using quantitative measures of complexity. However, if you are a biomedical engineer, a biologist, physiologist, economist, politician, stock market speculator, or politician, you have encountered complex systems. Furthermore, your success depends on your ability to successfully interact with and manage a variety of complex systems. In order not to be blindsided by unexpected results, we need a systematic, comprehensive way of analyzing, modeling, and simulating complex systems to predict non-anticipated outcomes. In its engaging first chapters, the book introduces complex systems, Campbell's Law, and the Law of Unintended Consequences, and mathematics necessary for conversations in complex systems. Subsequent chapters illustrate concepts via commonly studied biological mechanisms. The final chapters focus on higher-level complexity problems, and introduce complexity in economic systems. Designed as a reference for biologists and biological engineers, Introduction to Complexity and Complex Systems lends itself to use in a classroom course to introduce advanced students studying biomedical engineering, biophysics, or physiology to complex systems. Engaging and illustrative, this book aids scientists and decision makers in managing biological complexity and complex systems.
Category: Medical

Drift Into Failure

Author : Sidney Dekker
ISBN : 9781351942911
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.1 MB
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What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Joint Cognitive Systems

Author : David D. Woods
ISBN : 1420005685
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33.12 MB
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Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new technology and more powerful automation change our work? Research in Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) looks at the intersection of people, technology, and work. What it has found is not stories of simplification through more automation, but stories of complexity and adaptation. When work changed through new technology, practitioners had to cope with new complexities and tighter constraints. They adapted their strategies and the artifacts to work around difficulties and accomplish their goals as responsible agents. The surprise was that new powers had transformed work, creating new roles, new decisions, and new vulnerabilities. Ironically, more autonomous machines have created the requirement for more sophisticated forms of coordination across people, and across people and machines, to adapt to new demands and pressures. This book synthesizes these emergent Patterns though stories about coordination and mis-coordination, resilience and brittleness, affordance and clumsiness in a variety of settings, from a hospital intensive care unit, to a nuclear power control room, to a space shuttle control center. The stories reveal how new demands make work difficult, how people at work adapt but get trapped by complexity, and how people at a distance from work oversimplify their perceptions of the complexities, squeezing practitioners. The authors explore how CSE observes at the intersection of people, technology, and work, how CSE abstracts patterns behind the surface details and wide variations, and how CSE discovers promising new directions to help people cope with complexities. The stories of CSE show that one key to well-adapted work is the ability to be prepared to be surprised. Are you ready?
Category: Technology & Engineering

Skill Acquisition And Training

Author : Addie Johnson
ISBN : 9781315531632
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 63.23 MB
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Skill Acquisition and Training describes the building blocks of cognitive, motor, and teamwork skills, and the factors to take into account in training them. The basic processes of perception, cognition and action that provide the foundation for understanding skilled performance are discussed in the context of complex task requirements, individual differences, and extreme environmental demands. The role of attention in perceiving, selecting, and becoming aware of information, in learning new information, and in performance is described in the context of specific skills. A theme throughout this book is that much learning is implicit; the types of knowledge and relations that can profitably be learned implicitly and the conditions under which this learning benefits performance are discussed. The question of whether skill acquisition in cognitive domains shares underlying mechanisms with the acquisition of perceptual and motor skills is also addressed with a view to identifying commonalities that allow for widely applicable, general theories of skill acquisition. Because the complexity of real-world environments puts demands on the individual to adapt to new circumstances, the question of how skills research can be applied to organizational training contexts is an important one. To address this, this book dedicates much content to practical applications, covering such issues as how training needs can be captured with task and job analyses and how to maximize training transfer by taking trainee self-efficacy and goal orientation into account. This comprehensive yet readable textbook is optimized for students of cognitive psychology looking to understand the intricacies of skill acquisition.
Category: Business & Economics

Human Factors In Aviation

Author : Eduardo Salas
ISBN : 008092302X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46.79 MB
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This edited textbook is a fully updated and expanded version of the highly successful first edition of Human Factors in Aviation. Written for the widespread aviation community - students, engineers, scientists, pilots, managers, government personnel, etc., HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors in aircraft design, and vehicles and systems. The new editors offer essential breath of experience on aviation human factors from multiple perspectives (i.e. scientific research, regulation, funding agencies, technology, and implementation) as well as knowledge about the science. The contributors are experts in their fields. Topics carried over from the first edition are fully updated, several by new authors who are now at the fore of the field. New material - which represents 50% of the volume - focuses on the challenges facing aviation specialists today. One of the most significant developments in this decade has been NextGen, the Federal Aviation Administration's plan to modernize national airspace and to address the impact of air traffic growth by increasing airspace capacity and efficiency while simultaneously improving safety, environmental impacts and user access. NextGen issues are covered in full. Other new topics include: High Reliability Organizational Perspective, Situation Awareness & Workload in Aviation, Human Error Analysis, Human-System Risk Management, LOSA, NOSS and Unmanned Aircraft System. Comprehensive text with up-to-date synthesis of primary source material that does not need to be supplemented New edition thoroughly updated with 50% new material and full coverage of NexGen and other modern issues Instructor website with test bank and image collection makes this the only text offering ancillary support Liberal use of case examples exposes readers to real-world examples of dangers and solutions
Category: Technology & Engineering

Human Factors And Ergonomics In Practice

Author : Steven Shorrock
ISBN : 9781317120339
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69.45 MB
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This edited book concerns the real practice of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E), conveying the perspectives and experiences of practitioners and other stakeholders in a variety of industrial sectors, organisational settings and working contexts. The book blends literature on the nature of practice with diverse and eclectic reflections from experience in a range of contexts, from healthcare to agriculture. It explores what helps and what hinders the achievement of the core goals of HF/E: improved system performance and human wellbeing.?The book should be of interest to current HF/E practitioners, future HF/E practitioners, allied practitioners, HF/E advocates and ambassadors, researchers, policy makers and regulators, and clients of HF/E services and products.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Behind Human Error

Author : David D. Woods
ISBN : 9781317175537
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75.96 MB
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Human error is cited over and over as a cause of incidents and accidents. The result is a widespread perception of a 'human error problem', and solutions are thought to lie in changing the people or their role in the system. For example, we should reduce the human role with more automation, or regiment human behavior by stricter monitoring, rules or procedures. But in practice, things have proved not to be this simple. The label 'human error' is prejudicial and hides much more than it reveals about how a system functions or malfunctions. This book takes you behind the human error label. Divided into five parts, it begins by summarising the most significant research results. Part 2 explores how systems thinking has radically changed our understanding of how accidents occur. Part 3 explains the role of cognitive system factors - bringing knowledge to bear, changing mindset as situations and priorities change, and managing goal conflicts - in operating safely at the sharp end of systems. Part 4 studies how the clumsy use of computer technology can increase the potential for erroneous actions and assessments in many different fields of practice. And Part 5 tells how the hindsight bias always enters into attributions of error, so that what we label human error actually is the result of a social and psychological judgment process by stakeholders in the system in question to focus on only a facet of a set of interacting contributors. If you think you have a human error problem, recognize that the label itself is no explanation and no guide to countermeasures. The potential for constructive change, for progress on safety, lies behind the human error label.
Category: Technology & Engineering