GEOCHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL REACTIVITY OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS

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Geochemical And Hydrological Reactivity Of Heavy Metals In Soils

Author : H. Magdi Selim
ISBN : 9780203009604
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50.68 MB
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The hydrological and geochemical interactions between clay minerals and organic matter in soils directly influence the reaction, behavior, and mobility of heavy metals in soils. Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils is one of few books that comprehensively illustrates this cause-and-effect relationship. It highlights analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and environmental electron microscopy and reveals how molecular-level modeling is used to remove metal contaminants from the environment. It is thus a practical guide for soil and groundwater scientists, ecologists, and government regulators.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Dynamics And Bioavailability Of Heavy Metals In The Rootzone

Author : H. Magdi Selim
ISBN : 1439826234
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.52 MB
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Concerns regarding heavy metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems have prompted increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability in the root zone. The complexity of the hydrologic system gives rise to the need for understanding the fate and transport of trace elements in the soil-water-plant environment. Dynamics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in the Rootzone provides a multidisciplinary approach with emphasis on geohydrology, plant and soil science, and environmental chemistry. The primary focus of this book is on different approaches that describe the dynamics of heavy metals in the soil system. These approaches are key to providing direct information on the concentration of heavy metals and hence on their transport, toxicity, and bioavailability. The book includes chapters covering equilibrium and kinetic models of heavy metal interactions as well as non-equilibrium transport models. It also discusses chemical processes controlling soil solution concentrations and modeling of heavy metals adsorption. Addressing the biological component of heavy metal dynamics, this work examines rhizosphere microorganisms and phytoremediation. Colloid-associated transport, which can result in groundwater contamination, is discussed in relation to reclaimed mine sites. The authors also present an overview of recent advancements in the biogeochemistry of trace elements and their environmental implications. Additional chapters include examination of various natural environments including runoff waters at the watershed scale, heavy metal transformation in wetlands, dynamics of trace metals in frequently flooded soils, and effects on crops in biosolid-amended soils. Reliable assessment of potential risks resulting from the transport of trace elements in the soil environment requires the examination of complex chemical and biological interactions due to the heterogeneous nature of soils. This text describes the current state of the art in this field and explores innovative experimental and theoretical/modeling approaches that will enhance this knowledge. The book provides a coherent presentation of recent advances in techniques, modeling, and dynamics and bioavailability of heavy metals in the root zone.
Category: Science

Chemical Bioavailability In Terrestrial Environments

Author :
ISBN : 0080557759
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.32 MB
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This book begins with an overview of current thinking on bioavailability, its definition, cutting-edge research in speciation and advancement in tools for assessing chemical bioavailability in the terrestrial environment. The second section of the book focuses on the role of chemical speciation in bioavailability. Section three addresses bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and leads into the next section on bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals. Subsequent sections provide an overview of tools currently being used and new cutting-edge techniques to assess contaminant bioavailability. The last section of the book builds on previous sections in relating bioavailability to risk assessment and how this could be used for managing risks associated with contaminated land. Provides the latest information on developing concepts and definitions of bioavailability Includes a discussion of bioavailability and ecotoxicity of contaminants and bioavailability of nutrients and agrichemicals for applications in agriculture Analyzes tools for assessing bioavailability and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and remediation
Category: Science

Trace Elements From Soil To Human

Author : Alina Kabata-Pendias
ISBN : 9783540327141
Genre : Science
File Size : 45.36 MB
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The quality of food is such a live issue at the moment that this title is an essential tool for researchers in a variety of disciplines. It provides a review of the key features of trace elements in soils, plants and the food web on which human beings survive. The authors' intention is to summarize up-to-date interdisciplinary data for the concise presentation of our understanding of trace-element transfer in the chain from soil to man.
Category: Science

Powering The Future

Author : Robert B. Laughlin
ISBN : 9780465027941
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.97 MB
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In Powering the Future, Nobel laureate Robert B. Laughlin transports us two centuries into the future, when we’ve ceased to use carbon from the ground—either because humans have banned carbon burning or because fuel has simply run out. Boldly, Laughlin predicts no earth-shattering transformations will have taken place. Six generations from now, there will still be soccer moms, shopping malls, and business trips. Firesides will still be snug and warm. How will we do it? Not by discovering a magic bullet to slay our energy problems, but through a slew of fascinating technologies, drawing on wind, water, and fire. Powering the Future is an objective yet optimistic tour through alternative fuel sources, set in a world where we’ve burned every last drop of petroleum and every last shovelful of coal. The Predictable: Fossil fuels will run out. The present flow of crude oil out of the ground equals in one day the average flow of the Mississippi River past New Orleans in thirteen minutes. If you add the energy equivalents of gas and coal, it’s thirty-six minutes. At the present rate of consumption, we’ll be out of fossil fuels in two centuries’ time. We always choose the cheapest gas. From the nineteenth-century consolidation of the oil business to the California energy crisis of 2000-2001, the energy business has shown, time and again, how low prices dominate market share. Market forces—not green technology—will be the driver of energy innovation in the next 200 years. The laws of physics remain fixed. Energy will still be conserved, degrade entropically with use, and have to be disposed of as waste heat into outer space. How much energy a fuel can pack away in a given space is fixed by quantum mechanics—and if we want to keep flying jet planes, we will need carbon-based fuels. The Potential: Animal waste.If dried and burned, the world’s agricultural manure would supply about one-third as much energy as all the coal we presently consume. Trash. The United States disposes of 88 million tons of carbon in its trash per year. While the incineration of waste trash is not enough to contribute meaningfully to the global demand for energy, it will constrain fuel prices by providing a cheap supply of carbon. Solar energy.The power used to light all the cities around the world is only one-millionth of the total power of sunlight pouring down on earth’s daytime side. And the amount of hydropump storage required to store the world’s daily electrical surge is equal to only eight times the volume of Lake Mead. PRAISE FOR ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN “Perhaps the most brilliant theoretical physicist since Richard Feynman”—George Chapline, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory “Powerful but controversial.”— Financial Times “[Laughlin’s] company … is inspirational.” —New Scientist
Category: Science

Heavy Metals

Author : Wim Salomons
ISBN : 9783642793165
Genre : Nature
File Size : 76.22 MB
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"Heavy Metals: Problems and Solutions" is divided into three sections dealing with basic geochemical processes, remediation and case studies. The basic geochemical processes are discussed with respect to mobility in the environment and impact as well as methods to derive guidelines for heavy metals. Remediation focuses on currently available methods to treat contaminated sediments and soils. In addition, it considers the concept of geochemical engineering for remediation of large areas contaminated by metals. A number of case studies of polluted sediments and soils and their environmental impact highlight the principles discussed in the first two sections.
Category: Nature

Environmental Geochemistry

Author : Benedetto DeVivo
ISBN : 9780444640079
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.9 MB
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Environmental Geochemistry: Site Characterization, Data Analysis and Case Histories, Second Edition, reviews the role of geochemistry in the environment and details state-of-the-art applications of these principles in the field, specifically in pollution and remediation situations. Chapters cover both philosophy and procedures, as well as applications, in an array of issues in environmental geochemistry including health problems related to environment pollution, waste disposal and data base management. This updated edition also includes illustrations of specific case histories of site characterization and remediation of brownfield sites. Covers numerous global case studies allowing readers to see principles in action Explores the environmental impacts on soils, water and air in terms of both inorganic and organic geochemistry Written by a well-respected author team, with over 100 years of experience combined Includes updated content on: urban geochemical mapping, chemical speciation, characterizing a brownsfield site and the relationship between heavy metal distributions and cancer mortality
Category: Science

Heavy Metals In Soils

Author : Brian J. Alloway
ISBN : 9789400744707
Genre : Nature
File Size : 88.31 MB
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This third edition of the book has been completely re-written, providing a wider scope and enhanced coverage. It covers the general principles of the natural occurrence, pollution sources, chemical analysis, soil chemical behaviour and soil-plant-animal relationships of heavy metals and metalloids, followed by a detailed coverage of 21 individual elements, including: antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium and zinc. The book is highly relevant for those involved in environmental science, soil science, geochemistry, agronomy, environmental health, and environmental engineering, including specialists responsible for the management and clean-up of contaminated land.
Category: Nature

Reactive Transport Modeling

Author : Yitian Xiao
ISBN : 9781119060024
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.35 MB
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Teaches the application of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for subsurface systems in order to expedite the understanding of the behavior of complex geological systems This book lays out the basic principles and approaches of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for surface and subsurface environments, presenting specific workflows and applications. The techniques discussed are being increasingly commonly used in a wide range of research fields, and the information provided covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and how to apply techniques in specific areas. The need for RTM in engineered facilities, such as nuclear waste repositories or CO2 storage sites, is ever increasing, because the prediction of the future evolution of these systems has become a legal obligation. With increasing recognition of the power of these approaches, and their widening adoption, comes responsibility to ensure appropriate application of available tools. This book aims to provide the requisite understanding of key aspects of RTM, and in doing so help identify and thus avoid potential pitfalls. Reactive Transport Modeling covers: the application of RTM for CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy development; reservoir quality prediction; modeling diagenesis; modeling geochemical processes in oil & gas production; modeling gas hydrate production; reactive transport in fractured and porous media; reactive transport studies for nuclear waste disposal; reactive flow modeling in hydrothermal systems; and modeling biogeochemical processes. Key features include: A comprehensive reference for scientists and practitioners entering the area of reactive transport modeling (RTM) Presented by internationally known experts in the field Covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and hands-on examples for applying techniques in specific areas Teaches readers to appreciate the power of RTM and to stimulate usage and application Reactive Transport Modeling is written for graduate students and researchers in academia, government laboratories, and industry who are interested in applying reactive transport modeling to the topic of their research. The book will also appeal to geochemists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists, earth scientists, environmental engineers, and environmental chemists.
Category: Science

Environmental And Low Temperature Geochemistry

Author : Peter Ryan
ISBN : 9781118867495
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.82 MB
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Environmental and Low-Temperature Geochemistry presents conceptual and quantitative principles of geochemistry in order to foster understanding of natural processes at and near the earth’s surface, as well as anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment. It provides the reader with the essentials of concentration, speciation and reactivity of elements in soils, waters, sediments and air, drawing attention to both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Specific features include: • An introductory chapter that reviews basic chemical principles applied to environmental and low-temperature geochemistry • Explanation and analysis of the importance of minerals in the environment • Principles of aqueous geochemistry • Organic compounds in the environment • The role of microbes in processes such as biomineralization, elemental speciation and reduction-oxidation reactions • Thorough coverage of the fundamentals of important geochemical cycles (C, N, P, S) • Atmospheric chemistry • Soil geochemistry • The roles of stable isotopes in environmental analysis • Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes as environmental tracers and environmental contaminants • Principles and examples of instrumental analysis in environmental geochemistry The text concludes with a case study of surface water and groundwater contamination that includes interactions and reactions of naturally-derived inorganic substances and introduced organic compounds (fuels and solvents), and illustrates the importance of interdisciplinary analysis in environmental geochemistry. Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying environmental/low T geochemistry as part of an earth science, environmental science or related program. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/ryan/geochemistry.
Category: Science