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Gardens Of Earthly Delight

Author : John Fletcher
ISBN : 1905119364
Genre : History
File Size : 30.48 MB
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Deer parks are a unique and peculiar concept. Landowners, from kings and emperors to squires and gentlemen, have aggrandised themselves since prehistory by isolating and controlling deer: the most iconic hunting quarry of the northern hemisphere. Enclosed parks represent humanity's closest parallel with the territories of animals yet no-one has attempted to unravel their history across cultures. Why did people empark deer? When did they start doing that? Why did England possess so many more parks than other countries? John Fletcher's experience of a lifetime spent handling deer in parks together with recent historical research enables him to shed new light on these questions. Parks are about status; the deer and their venison, especially when used as gift commodities, symbolise that. The position of hunting in the human psyche is deep; even in the apes it may be more than merely a dietary survival strategy. Hunting enclosures existed before written history and recent research has indicated that the parkland landscape of Europe may be the habitat over which we have hunted for longest, and with which we have the longest connection and the deepest affinities; this is exemplified in European painting over many centuries. Gardens of Earthly Delight describes not only the history of deer parks but man's relationship with deer. Over twenty-one chronological chapters Fletcher ranges from the significance of deer and venison in prehistory to the symbolism of venison as an elite gift commodity for seven centuries of the English Royal Warrant, as well as the three hundred year prohibition on its sale within England and continuing illegality of selling hunted venison in the USA. He stresses the importance of rulers being seen to hunt in ancient Chinese parks and examines the ring hunts of Asia, Persian hunting enclosures and German water hunts. Britain has a long and rich history of deer parks, and he describes how the deer were fed, transported, enclosed, captured, housed and hunted within parks, and how parks evolved from haga and elricks to the splendour of the Tudor era, the destruction of the Civil War, and beyond to the 21st century. `packed with good sense and shot through with imaginative observations. How many vets can quote Hesiod and The Seven Pillars of Wisdom convincingly?' The Independent `John Fletcher is that rare animal, a passionate enthusiast who never bores. He tells the story with wit and style and I greatly enjoyed the book.' Derek Cooper of the BBC Radio Four Food Programme
Category: History

Archaeology Of Sutton Park

Author : Michael Hodder
ISBN : 9780750951951
Genre : History
File Size : 29.34 MB
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Sutton Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe. It was always set apart as ‘special’ and remains so, as a large and well-used public park. Its creation as a deer park in the twelfth century preserved the past and created the present. Detailed study of extensive earthworks, combined with excavation, documentary research, paleo-environmental evidence and the results of LiDAR survey, shows how the landscape was shaped and managed by people living in and around it, travelling through it, or hunting in it, and demonstrates how its present vegetation patterns result from past uses. In addition to the boundary, subdivisions, and fishponds of the medieval deer park, its archaeological features include prehistoric burnt mounds and a Roman road, and prominent remains of later uses including woodland management, water-powered industries, military training, sport, and recreation. In addition, this book discusses management of the park to protect its landscape for the future, and an appendix highlights particular features to visit.
Category: History

From The Deer To The Fox

Author : Mandy de Belin
ISBN : 9781909291041
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 41.24 MB
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Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the sport of hunting was transformed: the principal prey changed from deer to fox, and the methods of pursuit were revolutionized. Questioning the traditional explanation of the hunting transition—namely that change in the landscape led to a decline of the deer population—this book explores the terrain of Northamptonshire during that time period and seeks alternative justifications. Arguing that the many changes that hunting underwent in England were directly related to the transformation of the hunting horse, this in-depth account demonstrates how the near-thoroughbred horse became the mount of choice for those who hunted in the shires. This book shows how, quite literally, the thrill of the chase drove the hunting transition.
Category: Sports & Recreation

The Oxford Handbook Of Later Medieval Archaeology In Britain

Author : Christopher Gerrard
ISBN : 9780191062124
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22.73 MB
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The Middle Ages are all around us in Britain. The Tower of London and the castles of Scotland and Wales are mainstays of cultural tourism and an inspiring cross-section of later medieval finds can now be seen on display in museums across England, Scotland, and Wales. Medieval institutions from Parliament and monarchy to universities are familiar to us and we come into contact with the later Middle Ages every day when we drive through a village or town, look up at the castle on the hill, visit a local church or wonder about the earthworks in the fields we see from the window of a train. The Oxford Handbook of Later Medieval Archaeology in Britain provides an overview of the archaeology of the later Middle Ages in Britain between AD 1066 and 1550. 61 entries, divided into 10 thematic sections, cover topics ranging from later medieval objects, human remains, archaeological science, standing buildings, and sites such as castles and monasteries, to the well-preserved relict landscapes which still survive. This is a rich and exciting period of the past and most of what we have learnt about the material culture of our medieval past has been discovered in the past two generations. This volume provides comprehensive coverage of the latest research and describes the major projects and concepts that are changing our understanding of our medieval heritage.
Category: Social Science

Deer And People

Author : Naomi Sykes
ISBN : 9781909686571
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.62 MB
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Deer have been central to human cultures throughout time and space: whether as staples to hunter-gatherers, icons of Empire, or the focus of sport. Their social and economic importance has seen some species transported across continents, transforming landscape as they went with the establishment of menageries and park. The fortunes of other species have been less auspicious, some becoming extirpated, or being in threat of extinction, due to pressures of over-hunting and/or human-instigated environmental change. In spite of their diverse, deep-rooted and long standing relations with human societies, no multi-disciplinary volume of research on cervids has until now been produced. This volume draws together research on deer from wide-ranging disciplines and in so doing substantially advances our broader understanding of human-deer relationships in the past and the present. Themes include species dispersal, exploitation patterns, symbolic significance, material culture and art, effects on the landscape and management. The temporal span of research ranges from the Pleistocene to the modern day and covers Europe, North America and Asia. Papers derived from international conferences held at the University of Lincoln and in Paris.
Category: Science

Ichnographia Rustica

Author : William Alvis Brogden
ISBN : 9781317119203
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 69.20 MB
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One of the most significant occurrences in the history of design was the creation of the English Landscape Garden. Accounts of its genesis...the surprising structural change from the formal to a seeming informal are numerous. But none has ever been quite convincing and none satisfactorily placed the contributions of Stephen Switzer. Unlike his contemporaries, Switzer - an 18th century author of books on gardening and agricultural improvement - grasped a quite new principle: that the fashionable pursuit of great gardens should be "rural and extensive", rather than merely the ornamentation of a particular part of an estate. Switzer saw that a whole estate could be enjoyed as an aesthetic experience, and by the process of improving its value, could increase wealth. By encouraging improvers to see the garden in his enlarged sense, he opened up the adjoining countryside, the landscape, and made the whole a subject of unified design. Some few followed his advice immediately, such as Bathurst at Cirencester. But it took some time for his ideas to become generally accepted. Could this vision, and its working out in practice between 1710 and 1740 be the very reason for such changes? 300 years after the first volume of his writings began to be published; this book offers a timely critical examination of lessons learned and Switzer’s roles. In major influential early works at Castle Howard and Blenheim, and later the more "minor" works such as Spy Park, Leeswood or Rhual, the relationships between these designs and his writings is demonstrated. In doing so, it makes possible major reassessment of the developments, and thus our attitudes to well-known works. It provides an explanation of how he, and his colleagues and contemporaries first made what he had called Ichnographia Rustica, or more familiarly Modern Gardening from the mid-1740s, land later landscape gardens. It reveals an exceptional innovator, who by transforming the philosophical way in which nature was viewed, integrated good design with good farming and horticultural practice for the first time. It raises the issue of the cleavage in thought of the later 18th century, essentially whether the ferme ornee as the mixture of utile and dulci was the perfect designed landscape, or whether this was the enlarged garden with features of "unadorned nature"? The book discusses these considerable and continuing contrary influences on later work, and suggests Switzer has many lessons for how contemporary landscape and garden design ought be perceived and practised.
Category: Architecture

Europe S Changing Woods And Forests

Author : Keith Kirby
ISBN : 9781780643373
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38.27 MB
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Our understanding of the ecological history of European forests has been transformed in the last twenty years. Bringing together key findings from across the continent, this book provides a comprehensive account of the relevance of historical studies to current conservation and management of forests. It combines theory with a series of regional case studies to show how different aspects of forestry play out according to the landscape and historical context of the local area.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Shakespeare S Plants And Gardens A Dictionary

Author : Vivian Thomas
ISBN : 9781472558589
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 33.54 MB
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Shakespeare lived when knowledge of plants and their uses was a given, but also at a time of unique interest in plants and gardens.His lifetime saw the beginning of scientific interest in plants, the first large-scale plant introductions from outside the country since Roman times, and the beginning of gardening as a leisure activity. Shakespeare's works show that he engaged with this new world to illuminate so many facets of his plays and poems. This dictionary offers a complete companion to Shakespeare's references to landscape, plants and gardens, including both formal and rural settings.It covers plants and flowers, gardening terms, and the activities that Shakespeare included within both cultivated and uncultivated landscapes as well as encompassing garden imagery in relation to politics, the state and personal lives. Each alphabetical entry offers an definition and overview of the term discussed in its historical context, followed by a guided tour of its use in Shakespeare's works and finally an extensive bibliography, including primary and secondary sources, books and articles.
Category: Literary Criticism

Rural Space In The Middle Ages And Early Modern Age

Author : Albrecht Classen
ISBN : 9783110285420
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 28.63 MB
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Older research on the premodern world limited its focus on the Church, the court, and, more recently, on urban space. The present volume invites readers to consider the meaning of rural space, both in light of ecocritical readings and social-historical approaches. While previous scholars examined the figure of the peasant in the premodern world, the current volume combines a large number of specialized studies that investigate how the natural environment and the appearance of members of the rural population interacted with the world of the court and of the city. The experience in rural space was important already for writers and artists in the premodern era, as the large variety of scholarly approaches indicates. The present volume signals how much the surprisingly close interaction between members of the aristocratic and of the peasant class determined many literary and art-historical works. In a surprisingly large number of cases we can even discover elements of utopia hidden in rural space. We also observe how much the rural world was a significant element already in early-medieval mentality. Moreover, as many authors point out, the impact of natural forces on premodern society was tremendous, if not catastrophic.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Culture Of Animals In Antiquity

Author : Sian Lewis
ISBN : 9781351782494
Genre : History
File Size : 54.23 MB
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The Culture of Animals in Antiquity provides students and researchers with well-chosen and clearly presented ancient sources in translation, some well-known, others undoubtedly unfamiliar, but all central to a key area of study in ancient history: the part played by animals in the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean. It brings new ideas to bear on the wealth of evidence – literary, historical and archaeological – which we possess for the experiences and roles of animals in the ancient world. Offering a broad picture of ancient cultures in the Mediterranean as part of a wider ecosystem, the volume is on an ambitious scale. It covers a broad span of time, from the sacred animals of dynastic Egypt to the imagery of the lamb in early Christianity, and of region, from the fallow deer introduced and bred in Roman Britain to the Asiatic lioness and her cubs brought as a gift by the Elamites to the Great King of Persia. This sourcebook is essential for anyone wishing to understand the role of animals in the ancient world and support learning for one of the fastest growing disciplines in Classics.
Category: History