FUNDAMENTALS OF TREE RING RESEARCH

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Fundamentals Of Tree Ring Research

Author : James H. Speer
ISBN : 0816526842
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54.75 MB
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Although there are other scientific means of dating climatic and environmental events, dendrochronology provides the most reliable of all palaeorecords. This comprehensive text addresses all of the subjects that a reader who is new to the field will need to know and will be a welcome reference for practitioners at all levels. It includes a history of the discipline, biological and ecological background, principles of the field, basic scientific information on the structure and growth of trees, the complete range of dendrochronology methods, and a full description of each of the relevant subdisciplines.
Category: Social Science

Tree Rings And Climate

Author : H Fritts
ISBN : 9780323145282
Genre : Science
File Size : 39.89 MB
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Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.
Category: Science

An Introduction To Tree Ring Dating

Author : Marvin A. Stokes
ISBN : 0816516804
Genre : Science
File Size : 39.52 MB
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Tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is the study of the chronological sequence of annual growth rings in trees. This book--a seminal study in its field--provides a simple yet eloquent introduction to the discipline, explaining what a dendrochronologist does both in the field and in the laboratory. Authors Stokes and Smiley first explain the basic principles of tree-ring dating, then describe details of the process, step by step, from the time a sample is collected until it is incorporated into a master chronology. The book focuses on coniferous evergreens of the Southwest, particularly pi–ons, because they have wide geographic distribution, constitute a large population, and show excellent growth response to certain controlling factors. The book is specifically concerned with the task of establishing a calendar date for a wood or charcoal specimen. This concise but thorough explication of an important discipline will make dendrochonology more meaningful to students and professionals in archaeology, forestry, hydrology, and global change.
Category: Science

Tree Ring Dating And Archaeology

Author : M.G.L. Baillie
ISBN : 9781317606802
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30.68 MB
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The analysis of tree-ring patterns, or dendrochronology, is a very exact science and an important dating technique. The basis of the method is misleadingly simple: that overlap of successive older ring patterns can generate a master chronology and samples of unknown age can then be checked against this. This book, published originally in 1982, traces the development of a specific project from its inception to the successful completion of some of the longest chronologies in Europe. In doing so it looks at some of the problems associated with the subject and at the levels of precision possible. After outlining the techniques associated with the measurement and processing of tree-ring patterns, the author traces an attempt to construct such an independent chronology in a new area. The book breaks naturally into sections conditioned by the availability of timbers and these can be listed as modern, late medieval, medieval, early medieval and prehistoric. As far as possible the results are presented in the order in which things happened, thus preserving the sense of a developing subject.
Category: Social Science

A Slice Through Time

Author : M.G.L. Baillie
ISBN : 9781136226915
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50.59 MB
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The dramatic development of European oak chronologies over the last ten years parallels and supplements the bristlecone-pine chronology in the United States. Dendrochronologists can now provide a wood sample - a time capsule of biological material - for any calender date over the last seven millennia from two continents. For archaeologists, resigned to the imprecision of radiocarbon dating, the implications are profound. For the first time it is possible to establish precise dates for prehistoric events. Similarly, we have an independent and scientifically objective way of testing historical accounts, such as the traditional Egyptian chronology. Equally fundamental are the insights provided by the related disciplines of dendroecology and dendroclimatology. The Bronze Age eruption of Santorini and the AD 540 `event' are explored as fascinating case studies. Drawing on a further decade of research by himself and others, Mike Baille not only brings the pre-1980 story up to date, but demonstrates the wide and exciting applications of this comparatively new science.
Category: Social Science

Fire Ecology Of Pacific Northwest Forests

Author : James K Agee
ISBN : 1559632305
Genre : History
File Size : 31.40 MB
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The structure of most virgin forests in the western United States reflects a past disturbance history that includes forest fire. James K. Agee, an expert in the emergent field of fire ecology, analyzes the ecological role of fire in the creation and maintenance of natural western forests, focusing primarily on forest stand development patterns. His discussion of the natural fire environment and the environmental effects of fire is applicable to a wide range of temperate forests.
Category: History

Wood Structure And Environment

Author : Fritz Hans Schweingruber
ISBN : 9783540485483
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 35.69 MB
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The primary aim of Wood Structure and Environment is to reveal the hidden ecological richness in stems and roots from trees, shrubs and herbs. The detailed, lucid text will inspire researchers to consider the anatomic microcosm of wood plants and use it as a retrospective source of information, solving problems related to ecophysiology, competition, site conditions, population biology, earth science, wood quality and even human history.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Tree Rings

Author : Fritz Hans Schweingruber
ISBN : 9789400912731
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.27 MB
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At a meeting of dendrochronologists an American colleague described the effects of volcanic eruptions on annual ring formation in bristlecone pines. I knew very little about either volcanoes or American pines! At the same meeting European scientists spoke on the dendrochronological dating of lakeshore settlements and the effects of larch bud moth attack on trees in the Alps. It is possible that American participants were not in a position to fully appreciate these papers either. In other words, dendrochronology is an extremely interdisciplinary science; its facets range from modern statistics on wood anatomy to the history of art. It is difficult even for dendrochronol ogists to keep in touch with the whole spectrum, and even more difficult for the layman to obtain an overall view of the many methods and fields of application. In recent times specialisation has begun to hinder communication be tween the various sectors. Archaeologists, for instance, set up their own dendrochronological laboratories and construct independent chronologies to serve their particular interests. The scientific institutions which previously carried out such work are now turning more and more to strongly statistically or biologically-oriented questions. The full wealth of information contained in tree rings, however, will be revealed only when dendrochronologists make a concerted effort to relate the findings of the different fields. In spite of inevitable specialisation, it is necessary that the expert concern himself with the work of his colleagues.
Category: Science

Fundamentals Of Advanced Mathematics 1

Author : Henri Bourles
ISBN : 9780081021125
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 77.7 MB
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This precis, comprised of three volumes, of which this book is the first, exposes the mathematical elements which make up the foundations of a number of contemporary scientific methods: modern theory on systems, physics and engineering. This first volume focuses primarily on algebraic questions: categories and functors, groups, rings, modules and algebra. Notions are introduced in a general framework and then studied in the context of commutative and homological algebra; their application in algebraic topology and geometry is therefore developed. These notions play an essential role in algebraic analysis (analytico-algebraic systems theory of ordinary or partial linear differential equations). The book concludes with a study of modules over the main types of rings, the rational canonical form of matrices, the (commutative) theory of elemental divisors and their application in systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Part of the New Mathematical Methods, Systems, and Applications series Presents the notions, results, and proofs necessary to understand and master the various topics Provides a unified notation, making the task easier for the reader. Includes several summaries of mathematics for engineers
Category: Mathematics

40 Days Of Dating

Author : Jessica Walsh
ISBN : 9781613127155
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 69.12 MB
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When New York–based graphic designers and long-time friends Timothy Goodman and Jessica Walsh found themselves single at the same time, they decided to try an experiment. The old adage says that it takes 40 days to change a habit—could the same be said for love? So they agreed to date each other for 40 days, record their experiences in questionnaires, photographs, videos, texts, and artworks, and post the material on a website they would create for this purpose. What began as a small experiment between two friends became an Internet sensation, drawing 5 million unique (and obsessed) visitors from around the globe to their site and their story since it was launched in July 2013. 40 Days of Dating: An Experiment is a beautifully designed, expanded look at the experiment and the results, including a great deal of material that never made it onto the site, such as who they were as friends and individuals before the 40 days and who they have become since. Note: 40 Days of Dating has a special binding that allows it to open very flat by attaching the endpapers to the inside covers.
Category: Self-Help