FROM MOLECULE TO METAPHOR A NEURAL THEORY OF LANGUAGE MIT PRESS

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From Molecule To Metaphor

Author : Jerome Feldman
ISBN : 9780262296885
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 83.38 MB
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In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations -- formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines.After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.
Category: Psychology

From Molecule To Metaphor

Author : Jerome A. Feldman
ISBN : 0262562359
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 63.48 MB
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In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations -- formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines. After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Neuroscience And Multilingualism

Author : Edna Andrews
ISBN : 9781107036550
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 53.80 MB
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Alongside an analysis of the theoretical and experimental contributions to the field of multilingualism, this title presents new data and analysis obtained from a multilingualism fMRI study and includes a longitudinal study of second and third language acquisition combined with extensive empirically valid language proficiency data of the subjects.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language Music And The Brain

Author : Michael A. Arbib
ISBN : 9780262018104
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 70.46 MB
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A presentation of music and language within an integrative, embodied perspective of brain mechanisms for action, emotion, and social coordination.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Whose Freedom

Author : George Lakoff
ISBN : 142998970X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79.71 MB
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Since September 11, 2001, the Bush administration has relentlessly invoked the word "freedom." The United States can strike preemptively because "freedom is on the march." Social security should be privatized in order to protect individual freedoms. In the 2005 presidential inaugural speech, the words "freedom," "free," and "liberty" were used forty-nine times. "Freedom" is one of the most contested words in American political discourse, the keystone to the domestic and foreign policy battles that are racking this polarized nation. For many Democrats, it seems that President Bush's use of the word is meaningless and contradictory—deployed opportunistically to justify American military action abroad and the curtailing of civil liberties at home. But in Whose Freedom?, George Lakoff, an adviser to the Democratic party, shows that in fact the right has effected a devastatingly coherent and ideological redefinition of freedom. The conservative revolution has remade freedom in its own image and deployed it as a central weapon on the front lines of everything from the war on terror to the battles over religion in the classroom and abortion. In a deep and alarming analysis, Lakoff explains the mechanisms behind this hijacking of our most cherished political idea—and shows how progressives have not only failed to counter the right-wing attack on freedom but have failed to recognize its nature. Whose Freedom? argues forcefully what progressives must do to take back ground in this high-stakes war over the most central idea in American life.
Category: Political Science

Political Metaphor Analysis

Author : Andreas Musolff
ISBN : 9781441197009
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 55.15 MB
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This book explores the cognitively-oriented approach to metaphor studies, comparing it critically to other contemporary paradigms of metaphor in meaning. It incorporates cutting edge empirical data. In both semantics and cognitive linguistics, metaphor has gained central status over the past decades, chiefly on account of Lakoff and Johnson's 1980 book Metaphors We Live By, which has become a standard point of reference. Rather than advocating a 'pick and mix' combination of cognitive attitudes with theory and data from other paradigms, the book argues for the methodologically reflective comparison of theory traditions and acknowledgement of their strengths and weaknesses. This critical reflection on metaphor is an essential read for students of metaphor at an advanced undergraduate or postgraduate level. Each chapter outlines areas for further reading and research, and the book is built around data drawn from a multilingual research corpus of metaphors compiled from existing research, other corpora and internet data.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Software Abstractions

Author : Daniel Jackson
ISBN : 9780262528900
Genre : Computers
File Size : 89.34 MB
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Previously published in hardcover: 2012.
Category: Computers

Radical Embodied Cognitive Science

Author : Anthony Chemero
ISBN : 9780262258081
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 59.90 MB
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While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, "shored up" and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. "Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher," Chemero writes in his preface, adding, "I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything." With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.
Category: Philosophy

Philosophy In The Flesh

Author : George Lakoff
ISBN : UOM:39015046908979
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 52.35 MB
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Reexamines the Western philosophical tradition, looking at the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self
Category: Philosophy

Trees Of The Brain Roots Of The Mind

Author : Giorgio A. Ascoli
ISBN : 9780262329033
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.25 MB
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The human brain is often described as the most complex object in the universe. Tens of billions of nerve cells-tiny tree-like structures -- make up a massive network with enormous computational power. In this book, Giorgio Ascoli reveals another aspect of the human brain: the stunning beauty of its cellular form. Doing so, he makes a provocative claim about the mind-brain relationship. If each nerve cell enlarged a thousandfold looks like a tree, then a small region of the nervous system at the same magnified scale resembles a gigantic, fantastic forest. This structural majesty -- illustrated throughout the book with extraordinary color images -- hides the secrets behind the genesis of our mental states. Ascoli proposes that some of the most intriguing mysteries of the mind can be solved using the basic architectural principles of the brain. After an overview of the scientific and philosophical foundations of his argument, Ascoli links mental states with patterns of electrical activity in nerve cells, presents an emerging minority opinion of how the brain learns from experience, and unveils a radically new hypothesis of the mechanism determining what is learned, what isn't, and why. Finally, considering these notions in the context of the cosmic diversity within and among brains, Ascoli offers a new perspective on the roots of individuality and humanity.
Category: Science