FORENSIC METROLOGY SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT AND INFERENCE FOR LAWYERS JUDGES AND CRIMINALISTS INTERNATIONAL FORENSIC SCIENCE AND INVESTIGATION

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Forensic Metrology

Author : Ted Vosk
ISBN : 9781439826201
Genre : Law
File Size : 56.47 MB
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Forensic metrology is the application of scientific measurement to the investigation and prosecution of crime. Forensic measurements are relied upon to determine breath and blood alcohol and drug concentrations, weigh seized drugs, perform accident reconstruction, and for many other applications. Forensic metrology provides a basic framework for the performance and critical evaluation of all forensic measurements. It enables forensic scientists to better develop, perform and communicate forensic measurements; lawyers to better understand, present and cross-examine the results of forensic measurements; and judges to better subject testimony and evidence based on forensic measurements to the appropriate gatekeeping analysis. Forensic Metrology Scientific Measurement and Inference for Lawyers, Judges, and Criminalists sets forth the metrological framework required to reach sound conclusions based on measured results and the inferences those results support. Armed with this knowledge, scientists and nonscientists alike can: Engage in critical analysis of forensic measurements across a broad spectrum Better understand what measured results represent Successfully prepare and present testimony and/or cases that involve such evidence Recognize poor measurement practices and prevent bad science from undermining the search for truth in the courtroom The book begins by introducing and developing metrological principles and concepts. Next, it presents advanced and mathematically rigorous principles and methods of inference in metrology. Throughout the book, scientific and legal aspects of measurements are addressed and accompanied by examples. The accompanying CD includes an in-depth Primer on Forensic Metrology and provides practice materials for legal and forensic professionals that include court decisions, legal motions, and expert reports. A basic understanding of forensic metrology will improve the practices of both legal and forensic professionals, helping to ensure the integrity of the legal system, its fact-finding functions, and the practice of justice in the courtroom.
Category: Law

Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium Proms 2015 Conference Proceedings

Author : Quan Zhang
ISBN : 9789811016875
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 73.50 MB
Format : PDF
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This book collects and organizes the original studies presented at PROMS 2015 conference on theories and applications of Rasch model. It provides useful examples of the Rasch model used to address practical measurement problems across a range of different disciplines including Item Response Theory (IRT), philosophy of measurement, dimensionality, the role of fit statistics and residuals, application, educational application, language testing, health-related research, business and industrial application and Rasch-based computer software. PROMS 2015 (Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium) was held from August 20-24th 2015, in Fukuoka, Japan. The goal of this conference is to bring together the researchers from academia, universities, hospitals, industry, management sector as well as practitioners to share ideas, problems and solutions relating to the multifaceted aspects of Rasch Model.
Category: Psychology

Fingerprints And Other Ridge Skin Impressions Second Edition

Author : Christophe Champod
ISBN : 9781498728959
Genre : Law
File Size : 49.96 MB
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Since its publication, the first edition of Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions has become a classic in the field. This second edition is completely updated, focusing on the latest technology and techniques—including current detection procedures, applicable processing and analysis methods—all while incorporating the expansive growth of literature on the topic since the publication of the original edition. Forensic science has been challenged in recent years as a result of errors, courts and other scientists contesting verdicts, and changes of a fundamental nature related to previous claims of infallibility and absolute individualization. As such, these factors represent a fundamental change in the way training, identifying, and reporting should be conducted. This book addresses these questions with a clear viewpoint as to where the profession—and ridge skin identification in particular—must go and what efforts and research will help develop the field over the next several years. The second edition introduces several new topics, including Discussion of ACE-V and research results from ACE-V studies Computerized marking systems to help examiners produce reports New probabilistic models and decision theories about ridge skin evidence interpretation, introducing Bayesnet tools Fundamental understanding of ridge mark detection techniques, with the introduction of new aspects such as nanotechnology, immunology and hyperspectral imaging Overview of reagent preparation and application Chapters cover all aspects of the subject, including the formation of friction ridges on the skin, the deposition of latent marks, ridge skin mark identification, the detection and enhancement of such marks, as well the recording of fingerprint evidence. The book serves as an essential reference for practitioners working in the field of fingermark detection and identification, as well as legal and police professionals and anyone studying forensic science with a view to understanding current thoughts and challenges in dactyloscopy.
Category: Law

Professional Issues In Forensic Science

Author : Max M. Houck
ISBN : 9780128006238
Genre : Law
File Size : 45.66 MB
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Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field. Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues. Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions
Category: Law

Measurement Uncertainty In Forensic Science

Author : Suzanne Bell
ISBN : 9781315400884
Genre : Law
File Size : 25.72 MB
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In the courtroom, critical and life-changing decisions are made based on quantitative forensic science data. There is often a range in which a measured value is expected to fall and, in this, an inherent uncertainty associated with such measurement. Uncertainty in this context is not error. In fact, estimations of uncertainty can add to the utility and reliability of quantitative results, be it the length of a firearm barrel, the weight of a drug sample, or the concentration of ethanol in blood. Measurement Uncertainty in Forensic Science: A Practical Guide describes and defines the concepts related to such uncertainty in the forensic context. The book provides the necessary conceptual background and framework—a baseline—for developing and deploying reasonable and defensible uncertainty estimations across forensic disciplines. Information is presented conceptually, using easily understood examples, to provide a readable, handy reference for scientists in the laboratory, as well as investigators and legal professionals who require a basic understanding of the science underpinning measurement results.
Category: Law

Forensic Medicine Of The Lower Extremity

Author : Jeremy Rich
ISBN : 9781592598977
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46.8 MB
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Publius Syrus stated back in 42 B.C., “You cannot put the same shoe on every foot.” (Maxim 596) Though written long before the advent of forensic science, Syrus’ maxim summarizes the theme of Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity: Human Identification and Trauma Analysis of the Thigh, Leg, and Foot. Put simply, the lower extremity is a tremendously variable anatomic region. This variation is beneficial to forensic experts. Differences in the leg and foot can be used to establish individual identity. Analysis of damage to the lower limb can be used to reconstruct antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem trauma. As a forensic anthropologist, I analyze cases involving decomposed, burned, m- mified, mutilated, and skeletal remains. Many of the corpses I examine are incomplete. Occasionally, I receive nothing but the legs and feet; a lower torso dragged from a river; a foot recovered in a city park; dismembered drug dealers in plastic bags; victims of bombings and airline disasters; and the dead commingled in common graves. Though the leg and foot contain much that is useful in forensic analysis, before this publication, investigators faced a twofold problem. Little research that focused on the lower extremity was available in the literature, and the existing research was published in diverse sources, making its location and synthesis a daunting task.
Category: Medical

Encyclopedia Of Forensic Sciences

Author :
ISBN : 9780123821669
Genre : Law
File Size : 40.21 MB
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association
Category: Law

The Forensic Laboratory Handbook

Author : Ashraf Mozayani
ISBN : 9781592599462
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53.64 MB
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A comprehensive and easy-to-read introduction to the work of the modern forensic laboratory. The authors explain in simple language the capabilities and limitations of modern forensic laboratory procedures, techniques, analyses, and interpretations. Here, the interested reader will find an understandable and fascinating introduction to the complex worlds of forensic serology DNA, chemistry, crime reconstruction, digital evidence, explosives, arson, fingerprints, firearms, tool marks, odontology, and pathology. Additional chapters address the problems of assuring quality and seeking trace evidence in the forensic laboratory.
Category: Medical

Advances In Digital Forensics Iv

Author : Indrajit Ray
ISBN : 9780387849263
Genre : Computers
File Size : 53.44 MB
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Practically every crime now involves some aspect of digital evidence. This is the most recent volume in the Advances in Digital Forensics series. It describes original research results and innovative applications in the emerging discipline of digital forensics. In addition, it highlights some of the major technical and legal issues related to digital evidence and electronic crime investigations. This book contains a selection of twenty-eight edited papers from the Fourth Annual IFIP WG 11.9 Conference on Digital Forensics, held at Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan in the spring of 2008.
Category: Computers

New Challenges To Philosophy Of Science

Author : Hanne Andersen
ISBN : 9789400758452
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.12 MB
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This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the interdisciplinary development of its specialist fields, but also to provoke reflection on the idea of ‘European philosophy of science’. This efforts should foster a contemporaneous reflection on what might be meant by philosophy of science in Europe and European philosophy of science, and how in fact awareness of it could assist philosophers interpret and motivate their research through a stronger collective identity. The overarching aim is to set the background for a collaborative project organising, systematising, and ultimately forging an identity for, European philosophy of science by creating research structures and developing research networks across Europe to promote its development.
Category: Science