EXPOSURE SCIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

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Exposure Science In The 21st Century

Author : Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
ISBN : 9780309264693
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.85 MB
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.
Category: Science

Exposure Science In The 21st Century

Author : Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
ISBN : 9780309264686
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86.48 MB
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.
Category: Medical

Exposure Science In The 21st Century

Author : Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
ISBN : 9780309264716
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71.15 MB
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.
Category: Medical

Global Environmental Health In The 21st Century

Author : Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309103800
Genre : Science
File Size : 76.50 MB
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Biological threats like SARS and natural disasters like the tsunami in Indonesia have devastated entire regions, and quickly exhausted budgetary resources. As the field of environmental health continues to evolve, scientists and others must focus on gaining a better understanding of the links between human health and various environmental factors, and on creating new paradigms and partnerships needed to address these complex environmental health challenges facing society. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulations to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary discusses the role of industry in environmental health, examines programs designed to improve the overall state of environmental health, and explores how governmental and corporate entities can collaborate to manage this industry. Stakeholders in both the public and private sectors are looking for viable solutions as the complexity of societal problems and risks associated with management and varying regulatory standards continue to increase. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century draws critical links and provides insight into the current shape of global environmental health. The book recommends expanding environmental management systems (EMS) to encompass a more extensive global network. It also provides a complete assessment of the benefits and costs resulting from implementation of various environmental management systems.
Category: Science

Using 21st Century Science To Improve Risk Related Evaluations

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309453486
Genre : Nature
File Size : 64.68 MB
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Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.
Category: Nature

Human Biomonitoring For Environmental Chemicals

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309133904
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.4 MB
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Biomonitoring—a method for measuring amounts of toxic chemicals in human tissues—is a valuable tool for studying potentially harmful environmental chemicals. Biomonitoring data have been used to confirm exposures to chemicals and validate public health policies. For example, population biomonitoring data showing high blood lead concentrations resulted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory reduction of lead in gasoline; biomonitoring data confirmed a resultant drop in blood lead concentrations. Despite recent advances, the science needed to understand the implications of the biomonitoring data for human health is still in its nascent stages. Use of the data also raises communication and ethical challenges. In response to a congressional request, EPA asked the National Research Council to address those challenges in an independent study. Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals provides a framework for improving the use of biomonitoring data including developing and using biomarkers (measures of exposure), research to improve the interpretation of data, ways to communicate findings to the public, and a review of ethical issues.
Category: Science

Air Pollution Science For The 21st Century

Author : J. Austin
ISBN : 008052690X
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.4 MB
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Acid rain, photochemistry, long-range transport of pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols have dominated tropospheric air pollution for the last 30 years of the 20th century. At the start of the 21st century, acid rain is subject to planned improvement in Europe and North America, but is still a growing problem in Asia. Tropospheric ozone is understood much better, but the problem is still with us, and desirable levels are difficult to achieve over continental Europe. The heterogeneous chemistry that is responsible for ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now reasonably clear, but there is on-going interest in the sources and sinks of CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements in the troposphere. There is also increasing interest in indoor air quality, and the origin and health implications of atmospheric particles. Perhaps most important on a global perspective, intensive research has not yet determined the relationship between greenhouse gases, aerosols and surface temperature. The climactic implications of these are now more urgent than ever. This book, the first in the Developments in Environmental Science series, consists of a collection of authoritative reviews and essays on the science and application of air pollution research at the start of this new century.
Category: Science

A Research Strategy For Environmental Health And Safety Aspects Of Engineered Nanomaterials

Author : Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials
ISBN : 9780309253284
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.99 MB
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The nanotechnology sector, which generated about $225 billion in product sales in 2009, is predicted to expand rapidly over the next decade with the development of new technologies that have new capabilities. The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may lead to greater exposures of workers, consumers, and the environment, and the unique scale-specific and novel properties of the materials raise questions about their potential effects on human health and the environment. Over the last decade, government agencies, academic institutions, industry, and others have conducted many assessments of the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of nanotechnology. The results of those efforts have helped to direct research on the EHS aspects of ENMs. However, despite the progress in assessing research needs and despite the research that has been funded and conducted, developers, regulators, and consumers of nanotechnology-enabled products remain uncertain about the types and quantities of nanomaterials in commerce or in development, their possible applications, and their associated risks. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials presents a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential EHS risks of ENMs. The report summarizes the current state of the science and high-priority data gaps on the potential EHS risks posed by ENMs and describes the fundamental tools and approaches needed to pursue an EHS risk research strategy. The report also presents a proposed research agenda, short-term and long-term research priorities, and estimates of needed resources and concludes by focusing on implementation of the research strategy and evaluation of its progress, elements that the committee considered integral to its charge.
Category: Science

Indicators For Waterborne Pathogens

Author : Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens
ISBN : 9780309091220
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.65 MB
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Recent and forecasted advances in microbiology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry have made it timely to reassess the current paradigm of relying predominantly or exclusively on traditional bacterial indicators for all types of waterborne pathogens. Nonetheless, indicator approaches will still be required for the foreseeable future because it is not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples. This comprehensive report recommends the development and use of a “tool box” approach by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and others for assessing microbial water quality in which available indicator organisms (and/or pathogens in some cases) and detection method(s) are matched to the requirements of a particular application. The report further recommends the use of a phased, three-level monitoring framework to support the selection of indicators and indicator approaches.
Category: Science

Exposure Science

Author : Paul Lioy
ISBN : 9780124202382
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38.95 MB
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Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications is an invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or epidemiology. Focuses on and highlights the basic fundamentals, scientific goals, theories and tools of exposure science Examines the use of the exposome and eco-exposome concepts within the field of exposure science
Category: Technology & Engineering