EXCLUSION BY ELECTIONS

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Exclusion By Elections

Author : John D. Huber
ISBN : 9781107182943
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56.84 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Exclusion by Elections develops a theory about the circumstances under which 'class identities' as opposed to 'ethnic identities' become salient in democratic politics, and links this theory to issues of inequality and government efforts to redress the balance. The book argues that in societies with even modest levels of ethnic diversity, inequality invites ethnic politics, and ethnic politics results in less redistribution than class politics. Thus, contrary to workhorse theoretical models of redistribution in social science, where inequality should be related to more redistribution, the argument here is that inequality often makes it more difficult for democracies to adopt policies that redress inequality. Instead, incentives in electoral competition can lead to a situation where inequality becomes reinforced by inequality itself. The author explores the argument empirically by examining cross-national patterns of voting behaviour, redistribution and democratic transitions.
Category: Political Science

The Code Of Federal Regulations Of The United States Of America

Author : Internal Revenue Service
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063476118
Genre : Administrative law
File Size : 70.8 MB
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The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.
Category: Administrative law

J K Lasser S Your Income Tax 2011

Author : J.K. Lasser Institute
ISBN : 111801913X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 63.36 MB
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America's number one bestselling and most trusted tax guide offers the best balance of thoroughness, organization, and usability For over half a century, more than 39 million Americans have turned to J.K. Lasser for easy-to-follow, expert advice and guidance on planning and filing their taxes. Written by a team of tax specialists, J.K. Lasser's Your Income Tax 2011 includes all the outstanding features that have made this book the nation's all-time top-selling tax guide. As an added value, you can gain direct access to dozens of bonuses through jklasser.com, including links to the latest tax forms from the IRS, up-to-the-minute tax law changes, small business help, and much more. The book of choice for today's serious taxpayer Your Income Tax 2011 contains Over 2,500 easy-to-use tax planning tips and strategies Easy-to-understand coverage of the year's tax law changes Filing tips and instructions to help you prepare your 2010 return Quick reference section that highlights what's new for 2010 Quick topic index to help pinpoint the biggest money-saving deductions Advice for customers whose use software or CPAs to file their taxes Filled with expert advice and guidance, J.K. Lasser's Your Income Tax 2011 will help you plan and file your 2010 tax return in the most efficient way possible.
Category: Business & Economics

Constitution Making Under Occupation

Author : Andrew Arato
ISBN : 9780231512435
Genre : History
File Size : 30.86 MB
Format : PDF
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The attempt in 2004 to draft an interim constitution in Iraq and the effort to enact a permanent one in 2005 were unintended outcomes of the American occupation, which first sought to impose a constitution by its agents. This two-stage constitution-making paradigm, implemented in a wholly unplanned move by the Iraqis and their American sponsors, formed a kind of compromise between the populist-democratic project of Shi'ite clerics and America's external interference. As long as it was used in a coherent and legitimate way, the method held promise. Unfortunately, the logic of external imposition and political exclusion compromised the negotiations. Andrew Arato is the first person to record this historic process and analyze its special problems. He compares the drafting of the Iraqi constitution to similar, externally imposed constitutional revolutions by the United States, especially in Japan and Germany, and identifies the political missteps that contributed to problems of learning and legitimacy. Instead of claiming that the right model of constitution making would have maintained stability in Iraq, Arato focuses on the fragile opportunity for democratization that was strengthened only slightly by the methods used to draft a constitution. Arato contends that this event would have benefited greatly from an overall framework of internationalization, and he argues that a better set of guidelines (rather than the obsolete Hague and Geneva regulations) should be followed in the future. With access to an extensive body of literature, Arato highlights the difficulty of exporting democracy to a country that opposes all such foreign designs and fundamentally disagrees on matters of political identity.
Category: History

Code Of Federal Regulations

Author :
ISBN : OSU:32437121292599
Genre : Administrative law
File Size : 67.5 MB
Format : PDF
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Special edition of the Federal Register, containing a codification of documents of general applicability and future effect ... with ancillaries.
Category: Administrative law