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Eocene Biodiversity

Author : Gregg F. Gunnell
ISBN : 9781461512714
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.97 MB
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Initially, this work was designed to document and study the diversification of modern mammalian groups and was quite successful and satisfying. However, as field and laboratory work continued, there began to develop a suspicion that not all of the Eocene story was being told. It became apparent that most fossil samples, especially those from the American West, were derived from similar preservational circumstances and similar depositional settings. A program was initiated to look for other potential sources of fossil samples, either from non-traditional lithologies or from geographic areas that were not typically sampled. As this program of research grew it began to demonstrate that different lithologies and different geographic areas told different stories from those that had been developed based on more typical faunal assemblages. This book is conceived as an introduction to non-traditional Eocene fossils samples, and as a place to document and discuss features of these fossil assemblages that are rare or that come from rarely represented habitats.
Category: Science

Biodiversity Ii

Author : Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla
ISBN : 9780309520751
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.56 MB
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"The book before you . . . carries the urgent warning that we are rapidly altering and destroying the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms for more than a billion years." With those words, Edward O. Wilson opened the landmark volume Biodiversity (National Academy Press, 1988). Despite this and other such alarms, species continue to vanish at a rapid rate, taking with them their genetic legacy and potential benefits. Many disappear before they can even be identified. Biodiversity II is a renewed call for urgency. This volume updates readers on how much we already know and how much remains to be identified scientifically. It explores new strategies for quantifying, understanding, and protecting biodiversity, including New approaches to the integration of electronic data, including a proposal for a U.S. National Biodiversity Information Center. Application of techniques developed in the human genome project to species identification and classification. The Gap Analysis Program of the National Biological Survey, which uses layered satellite, climatic, and biological data to assess distribution and better manage biodiversity. The significant contribution of museum collections to identifying and categorizing species, which is essential for understanding ecological function and for targeting organisms and regions at risk. The book describes our growing understanding of how megacenters of diversity (e.g., rainforest insects, coral reefs) are formed, maintained, and lost; what can be learned from mounting bird extinctions; and how conservation efforts for neotropical primates have fared. It also explores ecosystem restoration, sustainable development, and agricultural impact. Biodiversity II reinforces the idea that the conservation of our biological resources is within reach as long as we pool resources; better coordinate the efforts of existing institutions--museums, universities, and government agencies--already dedicated to this goal; and enhance support for research, collections, and training. This volume will be important to environmentalists, biologists, ecologists, educators, students, and concerned individuals.
Category: Science

Biodiversity Of The Southern Ocean

Author : Bruno David
ISBN : 9780081004852
Genre : Nature
File Size : 50.95 MB
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The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is vast, in particular, its history, its isolation, and climate, making it a unique "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, adaptation and ecology. Its evolutionary history of adaptation provide a wealth of information on the functioning of the biosphere and its potential. The Southern Ocean is the result of a history of nearly 40 million years marked by the opening of the Straits south of Australia and South America and intense cooling. The violence of its weather, its very low temperatures, the formation of huge ice-covered areas, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean a world apart. This book discusses the consequences for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the region, including endemism, slowed metabolism, longevity, gigantism, and its larval stages; features which make this vast ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive processes, scalable to work in extreme environmental conditions. Today, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is facing global change, particularly in regional warming and acidification of water bodies. Unable to migrate further south, how will she cope, if any, to visitors from the North? Designed for curious readers to discover the immense ocean surrounding the most isolated and most inhospitable continent on the planet. Describes the Southern Ocean facing biodiversification due to global change Authored by scientists with experience of expeditions to the Southern Ocean
Category: Nature

Fish Production And Diversity Across The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum

Author : Douglas William Tomczik
ISBN : 1321450141
Genre :
File Size : 70.31 MB
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A partial analog for modern global change is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)--a transient episode of warming and acidification at ~55.5 Ma that triggered extinctions in deep sea biotas, extensive biogeographic shifts, and the appearance of 'excursion biotas' (common occurrences of taxa restricted to the PETM interval). We analyzed the impact of the PETM on fish production and biodiversity using three deep sea sites in the Pacific and tropical Atlantic. Fossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) mass accumulation rates show transient increases in fish production at all sites coincident with early stages of the PETM and exhibit little variation before and after the PETM. Fish tooth morphological diversity changes little across the PETM in both the equatorial Pacific and North Pacific gyre with larger changes at the equatorial Atlantic site. There is no evidence for the appearance of distinctive "excursion taxa" during the PETM, suggesting that fish experienced fewer geographic range shifts than calcareous and organic-walled plankton. The increase in ichthyolith accumulation, interpreted as export production at the PETM broadly matches published estimates of PETM export production from biogenic barium fluxes. Our findings contrast with model predictions for the next century, which suggest that increased global temperatures will lead to reduced subtropical fish production. Disparities between future Earth models and PETM data may reflect the different timescales of observation.


Author : Ian Tattersall
ISBN : 9781599473680
Genre : Religion
File Size : 77.3 MB
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"Endlessly absorbing and informative. It would be hard to imagine a better introduction to this most important and fascinating field.”—Bill Bryson, author of A Short History of Nearly Everything Paleontology: A Brief History of Life is the fifth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, Ian Tattersall, a highly esteemed figure in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, and paleontology, leads a fascinating tour of the history of life and the evolution of human beings. Starting at the very beginning, Tattersall examines patterns of change in the biosphere over time, and the correlations of biological events with physical changes in the Earth’s environment. He introduces the complex of evolutionary processes, situates human beings in the luxuriant diversity of Life (demonstrating that however remarkable we may legitimately find ourselves to be, we are the product of the same basic forces and processes that have driven the evolutionary histories of all other creatures), and he places the origin of our extraordinary spiritual sensibilities in the context of the exaptational and emergent acquisition of symbolic cognition and thought. Concise and yet comprehensive, historically penetrating and yet up-to-date, responsibly factual and yet engaging, Paleontology serves as the perfect entrée to science's greatest story.
Category: Religion