ENGINEERING AN ENDLESS FRONTIER

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Engineering An Endless Frontier

Author : Sunny Y. AUYANG
ISBN : 9780674020320
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71.41 MB
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Genetic engineering, nanotechnology, astrophysics, particle physics: We live in an engineered world, one where the distinctions between science and engineering, technology and research, are fast disappearing. This book shows how, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the goals of natural scientists--to discover what was not known--and that of engineers--to create what did not exist--are undergoing an unprecedented convergence. Sunny Y. Auyang ranges widely in demonstrating that engineering today is not only a collaborator with science but its equal. In concise accounts of the emergence of industrial laboratories and chemical and electrical engineering, and in whirlwind histories of the machine tools and automobile industries and the rise of nuclear energy and information technology, her book presents a broad picture of modern engineering: its history, structure, technological achievements, and social responsibilities; its relation to natural science, business administration, and public policies. Auyang uses case studies such as the development of the F-117A Nighthawk and Boeing 777 aircraft, as well as the experiences of engineer-scientists such as Oliver Heaviside, engineer-entrepreneurs such as Henry Ford and Bill Gates, and engineer-managers such as Alfred Sloan and Jack Welch to give readers a clear sense of engineering's essential role in the future of scientific research. Table of Contents: Preface 1. Introduction 2 . Technology Takes Off 2.1 From Practical Art to Technology 2.2 Construction Becomes Mathematical 2.3 Experimenting with Machines 2.4 Science and Chemical Industries 2.5 Power and Communication 3. Engineering for Information 3.1 From Microelectronics to Nanotechnology 3.2 Computer Hardware and Software 3.3 Wireless, Satellites, and the Internet 4. Engineering in Society 4.1 Social Ascent and Images of Engineers 4.2 Partnership in Research and Development 4.3 Contributions to Sectors of the Economy 5. Innovation by Design 5.1 Inventive Thinking in Negative Feedback 5.2 Design Processes in Systems Engineering 5.3 “Working Together� in Aircraft Development 5.4 From Onboard Computers to Door Hinges 6. Sciences of Useful Systems 6.1 Mathematics in Engineering and Science 6.2 Information and Control Theories 6.3 Wind Tunnels and Internet Simulation 6.4 Integrative Materials Engineering 6.5 Biological Engineering Frontiers 7. Leaders Who Are Engineers 7.1 Business Leaders in the Car Industry 7.2 Public Policies and Nuclear Power 7.3 Managing Technological Risks Appendix A. Statistical Profiles of Engineers Appendix B. U.S. Research and Development Notes Index I am impressed by the scope of Engineering - An Endless Frontier, and fascinated by Sunny Auyang's comprehensive knowledge of the subject. This is just the kind of book the National Academy of Engineering has been encouraging to promote the importance of engineering to the public. It will have a long shelf-life in that it pulls together material that is not readily accessible, and will serve as a reference for anyone interested in engineering as a profession. Engineering needs this book! --John Hutchinson, Harvard University Engineering - An Endless Frontier is extraordinary in scope. Sunny Auyang describes the different kinds of contemporary engineering practices and productions, attempts to provide historical background, explains the scientific basis for engineering innovation in different fields, and addresses the broad, systems level managerial, entrepreneurial, and design activities of professionals. It's rare to find a single author who can grasp and explain the essential features of modern technologies across such an array of industrial sectors and engineering disciplines and explain how they work, why they work they way they do, and what is required for their innovation, development and, yes, even maintenance. --Louis L. Bucciarelli, Professor Emeritus of Engineering and Technology Studies, MIT
Category: Technology & Engineering

Endless Frontier

Author : G. Pascal Zachary
ISBN : 9781501196461
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 38.52 MB
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A prodigiously researched biography of Vannevar Bush, one of America’s most awe-inspiring polymaths and the secret force behind the biggest technological breakthroughs of the twentieth century. As the inventor and public entrepreneur who launched the Manhattan Project, helped to create the military-industrial complex, conceived a permanent system of government support for science and engineering, and anticipated both the personal computer and the Internet, Vannevar Bush is the twentieth century’s Ben Franklin. In this engaging look at one of America’s most awe-inspiring polymaths, writer G. Pascal Zachary brings to life an American original—a man of his time, ours, and beyond. Zachary details how Bush cofounded Raytheon and helped build one of the most powerful early computers in the world at MIT. During World War II, he served as Roosevelt’s adviser and chief contact on all matters of military technology, including the atomic bomb. He launched the Manhattan Project and oversaw a collection of 6,000 civilian scientists who designed scores of new weapons. After the war, his attention turned to the future. He wrote essays that anticipated the rise of the Internet and boldly equated national security with research strength, outlining a system of permanent federal funding for university research that endures to this day. However, Bush’s hopeful vision of science and technology was leavened by an understanding of the darker possibilities. While cheering after witnessing the Trinity atomic test, he warned against the perils of a nuclear arms race. He led a secret appeal to convince President Truman not to test the Hydrogen Bomb and campaigned against the Red Scare. Elegantly and expertly relayed by Zachary, Vannevar’s story is a grand tour of the digital leviathan we know as the modern American life.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Project Management For Engineering Business And Technology

Author : John M. Nicholas
ISBN : 9781317384809
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 48.9 MB
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Project Management for Engineering, Business and Technology, 5th edition, addresses project management across all industries. First covering the essential background, from origins and philosophy to methodology, the bulk of the book is dedicated to concepts and techniques for practical application. Coverage includes project initiation and proposals, scope and task definition, scheduling, budgeting, risk analysis, control, project selection and portfolio management, program management, project organization, and all-important "people" aspects—project leadership, team building, conflict resolution and stress management. The Systems Development Cycle is used as a framework to discuss project management in a variety of situations, making this the go-to book for managing virtually any kind of project, program or task force. The authors focus on the ultimate purpose of project management—to unify and integrate the interests, resources and work efforts of many stakeholders, as well as the planning, scheduling, and budgeting needed to accomplish overall project goals. This new edition features: Updates throughout to cover the latest developments in project management methodologies New examples and 18 new case studies throughout to help students develop their understanding and put principles into practice A new chapter on agile project management and lean Expanded coverage of program management, stakeholder engagement, buffer management, and managing virtual teams and cultural differences in international projects Alignment with PMBOK terms and definitions for ease of use alongside PMI certifications Cross-reference to IPMA, APM, and PRINCE2 methodologies Extensive instructor support materials, including an Instructor’s Manual, PowerPoint slides, answers to chapter review questions, problems and cases, and a test bank of questions. Taking a technical yet accessible approach, Project Management for Business, Engineering and Technology, 5th edition, is an ideal resource and reference for all advanced undergraduate and graduate students in project management courses as well as for practicing project managers across all industry sectors.
Category: Business & Economics

Engineering Practice In A Global Context

Author : Bill Williams
ISBN : 9780415636964
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28.59 MB
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This volume aims to provide the reader with a broad cross-section of empirical research being carried out into engineers at work. The chapters provide pointers to other relevant studies over recent decades – an important aspect, we believe, because this area has only recently begun to coalesce as a field of study and up to now relevant empirical research has tended to be published across a range of academic disciplines. This lack of readily available literature might explain why contemporary notions of engineering have drifted far from the realities of practice and are in urgent need of revision. The principal focus is on what empirical studies tell us about the social and technical aspects of engineering practice and the mutual interaction between the two. After a foreword by Gary Lee Downey, the research presented by the various chapter authors is based on empirical data from studies of engineers working in a variety of global settings that include Australia, Ireland, Portugal, South Asia, Switzerland, the UK and the US The following groups of readers are addressed: •researchers and students with an interest in engineering practice, •professional engineers, particularly those interested in research on engineering practice, •engineering educators, •people who employ, recruit or work with engineers. Providing a much clearer picture of engineering practice and its variations than has been available until now, the book is of interest to engineers and those who work with them. At the same time it provides invaluable resource material for educators who are aiming for more authentic learning experiences in their classrooms. Further information, visit the website Engineering Practice in a Global Context Online: http://epr.ist.utl.pt/EPGC/
Category: Technology & Engineering

Pursuing The Endless Frontier

Author : Charles M. Vest
ISBN : 0262250608
Genre : Education
File Size : 58.28 MB
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The former president of MIT discusses challenges and policy issues confronting academia, science and technology, and the world at large. In his fourteen years as president of MIT, Charles Vest worked continuously to realize his vision of rebuilding America's trust in science and technology. In a time when the federal government dramatically reduced its funding of academic research programs and industry shifted its R&D resources into the short-term product-development process, Vest called for new partnerships with business and government. He called for universities to meet the intellectual challenges posed by the innovation-driven, globally connected needs of industry even as he reaffirmed basic academic values and the continuing need for longer-term scientific inquiry. In Pursuing the Endless Frontier, Vest addresses these and other issues in a series of essays written during his tenure as president of MIT. He discusses the research university's need to shift to a broader, more international outlook, the value of diversity in the academic community, the greater leadership role for faculty outside the classroom, and the boundless opportunity of new scientific and technological developments even when coupled with financial constraints. In the provocative essay "What We Don't Know," Vest reminds us of what he calls "the most critical point of all," that science is driven by a deep human need to understand nature, to answer the "big questions"—that what we don't know is more important than what we do. In another essay, on the future of MIT, he celebrates MIT's strengths as being extraordinarily well-suited to the needs of an era of unprecedented change in science and technology. In "Disturbing the Educational Universe: Universities in the Digital Age—Dinosaurs or Prometheans," he describes MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare initiative, which builds on the fundamental nature of the Internet as an enabling and liberating technology. Vest, who is stepping down from MIT's presidency in the fall of 2004, writes with clarity and insight about the issues facing academic institutions in the twenty-first century. His essays in Pursuing the Endless Frontier offer inspiration to educators and researchers seeking the way forward.
Category: Education

Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309159685
Genre : Education
File Size : 34.88 MB
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In order for the United States to maintain the global leadership and competitiveness in science and technology that are critical to achieving national goals, we must invest in research, encourage innovation, and grow a strong and talented science and technology workforce. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation explores the role of diversity in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce and its value in keeping America innovative and competitive. According to the book, the U.S. labor market is projected to grow faster in science and engineering than in any other sector in the coming years, making minority participation in STEM education at all levels a national priority. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation analyzes the rate of change and the challenges the nation currently faces in developing a strong and diverse workforce. Although minorities are the fastest growing segment of the population, they are underrepresented in the fields of science and engineering. Historically, there has been a strong connection between increasing educational attainment in the United States and the growth in and global leadership of the economy. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation suggests that the federal government, industry, and post-secondary institutions work collaboratively with K-12 schools and school systems to increase minority access to and demand for post-secondary STEM education and technical training. The book also identifies best practices and offers a comprehensive road map for increasing involvement of underrepresented minorities and improving the quality of their education. It offers recommendations that focus on academic and social support, institutional roles, teacher preparation, affordability and program development.
Category: Education

Allocating Federal Funds For Science And Technology

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 030917600X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 36.28 MB
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The United States faces a new challenge--maintaining the vitality of its system for supporting science and technology despite fiscal stringency during the next several years. To address this change, the Senate Appropriations Committee requested a report from the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine to address "the criteria that should be used in judging the appropriate allocation of funds to research and development activities; to examine the appropriate balance among different types of institutions that conduct such research; and to look at the means of assuring continued objectivity in the allocation process." In this eagerly-awaited book, a committee of experts selected by the National Academies and the Institute responds with 13 recommendations that propose a new budgeting process and formulates a series of questions to address during that process. The committee also makes corollary recommendations about merit review, government oversight, linking research and development to government missions, the synergy between research and education, and other topics. The recommendations are aimed at rooting out obsolete and inadequate activities to free resources from good programs for even better ones, in the belief that "science and technology will be at least as important in the future as they have been in the past in dealing with problems that confront the nation." The authoring committee of this book was chaired by Frank Press, former President of the National Academy of Sciences (1981-1993) and Presidential Science and Technology Advisor (1977-1981).
Category: Political Science

Race Rigor And Selectivity In U S Engineering

Author : Amy E. Slaton
ISBN : 0674054636
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.7 MB
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Despite the educational and professional advances made by minorities in recent decades, African Americans remain woefully underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and engineering. Even at its peak, in 2000, African American representation in engineering careers reached only 5.7 percent, while blacks made up 15 percent of the U.S. population. Some forty-five years after the Civil Rights Act sought to eliminate racial differences in education and employment, what do we make of an occupational pattern that perpetually follows the lines of race? "Race, Rigor, and Selectivity in U.S. Engineering" pursues this question and its ramifications through historical case studies. Focusing on engineering programs in three settings--in Maryland, Illinois, and Texas, from the 1940s through the 1990s--Amy E. Slaton examines efforts to expand black opportunities in engineering as well as obstacles to those reforms. Her study reveals aspects of admissions criteria and curricular emphases that work against proportionate black involvement in many engineering programs. Slaton exposes the negative impact of conservative ideologies in engineering, and of specific institutional processes--ideas and practices that are as limiting for the field of engineering as they are for the goal of greater racial parity in the profession.
Category: Science

A History Of Control Engineering 1930 1955

Author : Stuart Bennett
ISBN : 0863412998
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27.40 MB
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In the twenty-five years between 1930 and 1955 crucial changes in our understanding of feedback control systems occurred. The history of these developments is traced in this book
Category: Technology & Engineering

Engineers For Change

Author : Matthew Wisnioski
ISBN : 9780262304269
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66.90 MB
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In the late 1960s an eclectic group of engineers joined the antiwar and civil rights activists of the time in agitating for change. The engineers were fighting to remake their profession, challenging their fellow engineers to embrace a more humane vision of technology. In Engineers for Change, Matthew Wisnioski offers an account of this conflict within engineering, linking it to deep-seated assumptions about technology and American life. The postwar period in America saw a near-utopian belief in technology's beneficence. Beginning in the mid-1960s, however, society--influenced by the antitechnology writings of such thinkers as Jacques Ellul and Lewis Mumford--began to view technology in a more negative light. Engineers themselves were seen as conformist organization men propping up the military-industrial complex. A dissident minority of engineers offered critiques of their profession that appropriated concepts from technology's critics. These dissidents were criticized in turn by conservatives who regarded them as countercultural Luddites. And yet, as Wisnioski shows, the radical minority spurred the professional elite to promote a new understanding of technology as a rapidly accelerating force that our institutions are ill-equipped to handle. The negative consequences of technology spring from its very nature--and not from engineering's failures. "Sociotechnologists" were recruited to help society adjust to its technology. Wisnioski argues that in responding to the challenges posed by critics within their profession, engineers in the 1960s helped shape our dominant contemporary understanding of technological change as the driver of history.
Category: Technology & Engineering