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Encyclopedia Of Epidemiologic Methods

Author : Mitchell H Gail
ISBN : 0471866415
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 61.15 MB
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Featuring articles from the prestigious Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, many of which have been revised and updated to include recent developments, the Encyclopedia of Epidemiologic Methods also includes newly commissioned articles reflecting the latest thinking in Cancer Registries Birth Defect Registries Meta Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies Epidemiology Overview Sample Size Sex Ratio at Birth Software Design and Analysis Featuring contributions from leading experts in academia, government and industry, the Encyclopedia of Epidemiologic Methods has been designed to complement existing texts on the subject by providing further extensive, up–to–date coverage of specialised topics and by introducing the reader to the research literature. Offering a wealth of information in a single resource, the Encyclopedia of Epidemiologic Methods Offers an excellent introduction to a vast array of specialised topics Includes in–depth coverage of the statistical underpinnings of contemporary epidemiologic methods Provides concise definitions and introductions to numerous concepts found in the current literature Uses extensive cross–references, helping to facilitate further research, and enabling the reader to locate definitions and related concepts In addition to featuring extensive articles in the areas of descriptive and analytic epidemiology, the Encyclopedia also provides the reader with articles on case–control design and offers substantial coverage of allied statistical methods. From the Reviews . "a selection of excellent articles" (Short Book Reviews, December 2001) "The articles were written by experts...hence the quality of entries is quite good. The editors have done an excellent job..." (Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 2001) "There is no doubt that this is an invaluable tool for researchers involved in medical and public health research as it offers an excellent springboard for acquiring and strengthening practical and methodological tools." (Short Book Reviews, Vol. 21, No. 3, December 2001) "...illuminating and comprehensive and often of extremely high quality..." (Biometrics, September 2002)
Category: Mathematics

Encyclopedia Of Epidemiology

Author : Sarah Boslaugh
ISBN : 9781412928168
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.29 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Epidemiology presents state-of-the-art information from the field of epidemiology in a less technical and accessible style and format. With more than 600 entries, no single reference provides as comprehensive a resource in as focused and appropriate manner. The entries cover every major facet of epidemiology, from risk ratios to case-control studies to mediating and moderating variables, and much more. Relevant topics from related fields such as biostatistics and health economics are also included.
Category: Medical

Encyclopedia Of Social Measurement Kimberly Kempf Leonard

Author : Elsevier Science, Inc
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50.36 MB
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Preface Methodology . . . [has] developed as a bent of mind rather than as a system of organized principles and procedures. The methodologist is a scholar who is above all analytical in his approach to his subject matter. He tells other scholars what they have done, or might do, rather than what they should do. He tells them what order of finding has emerged from their research, not what kind of result is or is not preferable. This kind of analytical approach requires self-awareness on the one hand, and tolerance, on the other. The methodologist knows that the same goal can be reached by alternative roads. (Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg, 1955, p. 4) In the social sciences we use methodology to try to answer questions about how and why people behave as they do. Some types of behavior are very common or routine, while others happen rarely or only in certain situations. When you realize that every conceivable type of behavior is within the realm of possible subjects for us to study, you can begin to appreciate the scope of social science. Beyond identifying human activities and the boundaries in which they occur, social scientists also want to explain why behaviors happen. In looking for causes, social scientists pursue all dimensions of the social world. We look at personal traits of individuals, characteristics of interactions between people, and contextual features of the communities and cultures in which they live. We study people who lived in the past, try to improve the quality of life today, and anticipate what the future will hold. It is difficult to think of a topic that involves people for which a social scientist could not investigate. Given all we do, it is good that there are so many of us. You will find social scientists in university departments as professors of sociology, psychology, anthropology, political science, and economics. You will also find professors of geography, history, philosophy, math, management, planning, finance, journalism, architecture, humanities, and art who are social scientists. Even this multidisciplinary list is not exhaustive. There are important and prevalent social science investigations that influence decisionmaking in the world outside of universities too. Social scientists are world-wide and work in all branches of government, large and small organizations, and many types of businesses. Daily life for most people is influenced by social science research in marketing, insurance, and government. However, not everyone in these positions is a social scientist; the distinction involves scientific inquiry, or the approach used to try to answer questions about behavior. As the definition cited above conveys, good science includes tolerance and appreciation for many methodological paths. This encyclopedia of social science methodology provides 356 entries written by social scientists about what they do. The entries in this encyclopedia cover many forms of measurement used by social scientists to study behavior. Eleven substantive sections delineate social sciences and the research processes they follow to measure and provide knowledge on a wide range of topics. The encyclopedia has an extensive index too, because many topics include issues that are relevant in more than one section. From many perspectives and strategies, these volumes describe the research questions social scientists ask, the sources and methods they use to collect information, and the techniques they use to analyze these data and provide answers to the important questions. Each section includes entries that address important components of quantitative and qualitative research methods, which are dissected and illustrated with examples from diverse fields of study. The articles convey research basics in sufficient detail to explain even the most complicated statistical technique, and references for additional information are noted for each topic. Most entries describe actual research experiences to illustrate both the realm of possibilities and the potential challenges that might be encountered. Some entries describe major contributions and the social scientists who made them. The authors are accomplished methodologists in their fields of study. They explain the steps necessary to accomplish the measurement goals, as well as provide their practical advice for ways in which to overcome the likely obstacles. Collectively, the entries in this encyclopedia also convey thatno singleapproach, type of data, or technique of analysis reigns supreme. Indeed, plenty of disagreements exist among social scientists about what constitutes the ‘‘best’’ measurement strategy. Often distinctions are made between quantitative and qualitative methodologies, or are xli discipline-specific. Some preferences can be linked to a specific field of study or research topic; others, related to time and location, coincide with how new ideas and advances in technology are shared. Sometimes we don’t even agree on what is the appropriate question we should try to answer! Although our views differ on what is ideal, and even on what are the appropriate standards for assessing measurement quality, social scientists generally do agree that the following five issues should be considered: 1. We agree on the need to be clear about the scope and purpose of our pursuits. The benchmarks for evaluating success differ depending on whether our intent is to describe, explain, or predict and whether we focus extensively on a single subject or case (e.g., person, family, organization, or culture) or more generally on patterns among many cases. 2. We agree on the need to make assurances for the ethical treatment of the people we study. 3. We agree on the need to be aware of potential sources of measurement error associated with our study design, data collection, and techniques of analysis. 4. We agree it is important to understand the extent to which our research is a reliable and valid measure of what we contend. Our measures are reliable if they are consistent with what others would have found in the same circumstances. If our measures also are consistent with those from different research circumstances, for example in studies of other behaviors or with alternate measurement strategies, then such replication helps us to be confident about the quality of our efforts. Sometimes we’d like the results of our study to extend beyond the people and behavior we observed. This focus on a wider applicability for our measures involves the issue of generalizability. When we’re concerned about an accurate portrayal of reality, we use tools to assess validity. When we don’t agree about the adequacy of the tools we use to assess validity, sometimes the source of our disagreements is different views on scientific objectivity. 5. We also agree that objectivity merits consideration, although we don’t agree on the role of objectivity or our capabilities to be objective in our research. Some social scientists contend that our inquiries must be objective to have credibility. In a contrasting view of social science, or epistemology, objectivity is not possible and, according to some, not preferable. Given that we study people and are human ourselves, it is important that we recognize that life experiences necessarily shape the lens through which people see reality. Besides a lack of consensus within the social sciences, other skeptics challenge our measures and methods. In what some recently have labeled ‘‘the science wars,’’ external critics contend that social scientists suffer ‘‘physics envy’’ and that human behavior is not amenable to scientific investigation. Social scientists have responded to ‘‘antiscience’’ sentiments from the very beginning, such as Emile Durkhiem’s efforts in the 19th century to identify ‘‘social facts.’’ As entertaining as some of the debates and mudslinging can be, they are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon, if ever. One reason that Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg contend that tolerance and appreciation for different methodological pathways make for better science is that no individual scientist can have expertise in all the available options.Werecognize this now more than ever, as multidisciplinary teams and collaborations between scientists with diverse methodological expertise are commonplace, and even required by some sources of research funding. Meanwhile, people who can be our research subjects continue to behave in ways that intrigue, new strategies are proffered to reduce social problems and make life better, and the tool kits or arsenals available to social scientists continue to grow. The entries in these volumes provide useful information about how to accomplish social measurement and standards or ‘‘rules of thumb.’’ As you learn these standards, keep in mind the following advice from one of my favorite methodologists: ‘‘Avoid the fallacy fallacy. When a theorist or methodologist tells you you cannot do something, do it anyway. Breaking rules can be fun!’’ Hirschi (1973, pp. 1712). In my view nothing could be more fun than contemporary social science, and I hope this encyclopedia will inspire even more social science inquiry! In preparing this encyclopedia the goal has been to compile entries that cover the entire spectrum of measurement approaches, methods of data collection, and techniques of analysis used by social scientists in their efforts to understand all sorts of behaviors. The goal of this project was ambitious, and to the extent that the encyclopedia is successful there are many to people to thank. Myfirst thank you goes to the members of the Executive Advisory Board and theEditorial Advisory Board who helpedmeto identify my own biased views about social science and hopefully to achieve greater tolerance and appreciation. These scientists helped identify the ideal measurement topics, locate the experts and convince them to be authors, review drafts of the articles, and make the difficult recommendations required by time and space considerations as the project came to a close. My second thank you goes to the many authors of these 356 entries. Collectively, these scholars represent well the methodological status of social science today. Third, I thank the many reviewers whose generous recommendations improved the final product. In particular I extend my personal thanks to colleagues at the University of Texas at Dallas, many of whom participated in large and small roles in this project, and all of whomhave helpedme to broaden my appreciation of social xlii Preface measurement. Finally, I thank Scott Bentley, Kirsten Funk, Kristi Anderson, and their colleagues at Elsevier for the opportunity and their encouragement when the tasks seemed overwhelming. Scott’s insights to the possibilities of a project such as this and the administrative prowess of both Kirsten and Kristi helped make this a reality. Good science is a cumulative process, and we hope this project will be ongoing and always improving. Despite our best efforts to identify topics and authors, sometimes we failed. If you have suggestions, criticisms, or information worth considering, I hope you will let me know. Hirschi, Travis (1973). Procedural rules and the study of deviant behavior. Social Problems 21(2), 159173. Lazarsfeld, Paul and Morris Rosenberg (1955). The Language of Social Research. The Free Press, New York. KIMBERLY KEMPF-LEONARD
Category: Social Science

Encyclopedia Of Health Services Research

Author : Ross M. Mullner
ISBN : 9781412951791
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65.41 MB
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At the very heart of modern healthcare is a critical paradox. Today, as never before, healthcare has the ability to enhance the quality and duration of life. At the same time, healthcare has become so enormously costly that it can easily bankrupt governments and impoverish individuals and families. According to federal forecasters, by the year 2015 one in every five U.S. dollars will be spent on healthcare, for total annual healthcare spending of more than $4 trillion. While the cost of healthcare is going up, the number of individuals and families without health insurance coverage is increasing. For many, the miracles of modern medicine may be unaffordable. Health services research investigates the relationship between the factors of cost, quality, and access to healthcare and their impact upon medical outcomes (i.e., death, disease, disability, discomfort, and dissatisfaction with care). Health services research addresses such key questions as, Why is the cost of healthcare always increasing? How can healthcare costs be successfully contained without jeopardizing quality? How can medical errors be eliminated? What is the medical impact of not having health insurance coverage? The proposed encyclopedia addresses these and other important questions and issues.
Category: Medical

A Dictionary Of Epidemiology

Author : Miquel Porta
ISBN : 9780199390052
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53.46 MB
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This sixth edition of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the most updated since its inception -- reflects the profound substantive and methodological changes that have come to characterize epidemiology and its associated disciplines. Sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, this book remains the essential reference for anyone studying or working in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, medicine, or the growing number health sciences in which epidemiologic competency is now required. More than just a dictionary, this text is an essential guidebook to the state of the science. It offers the most current, authoritative definitions of terms central to biomedical and public health literature -- everything from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology continues to change and grow, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will remain its book of record.
Category: Medical

A History Of Epidemiologic Methods And Concepts

Author : Alfredo Morabia
ISBN : 3764368187
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62.87 MB
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Methods, just as diseases or scientists, have their own history. It is important for scientists to be aware of the genesis of the methods they use and of the context in which they were developed. A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts is based on a collection of contributions which appeared in "SPM International Journal of Public Health", starting in January 2001. The contributions focus on the historical emergence of current epidemiological methods and their relative importance at different points in time, rather than on specific achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues such as cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung cancer. The papers present the design of prospective and retrospective studies, and the concepts of bias, confounding, and interaction. The compilation of articles is complemented by an introduction and comments by Prof. Alfredo Morabia which puts them in the context of current epidemiological research.
Category: Medical

The Encyclopedia Of Psychological Trauma

Author : Gilbert Reyes
ISBN : 9780470447482
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87.29 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma is the only authoritative reference on the scientific evidence, clinical practice guidelines, and social issues addressed within the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Edited by the leading experts in the field, you will turn to this definitive reference work again and again for complete coverage of psychological trauma, PTSD, evidence-based and standard treatments, as well as controversial topics including EMDR, virtual reality therapy, and much more.
Category: Psychology

Bias And Causation

Author : Dr. Herbert I. Weisberg
ISBN : 1118058208
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.52 MB
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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation presents a complete treatment of the subject, organizing and clarifying the diverse types of biases into a conceptual framework. The book treats various sources of bias in comparative studies—both randomized and observational—and offers guidance on how they should be addressed by researchers. Utilizing a relatively simple mathematical approach, the author develops a theory of bias that outlines the essential nature of the problem and identifies the various sources of bias that are encountered in modern research. The book begins with an introduction to the study of causal inference and the related concepts and terminology. Next, an overview is provided of the methodological issues at the core of the difficulties posed by bias. Subsequent chapters explain the concepts of selection bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, and information bias along with the distortion of a causal effect that can result when the exposure and/or the outcome is measured with error. The book concludes with a new classification of twenty general sources of bias and practical advice on how mathematical modeling and expert judgment can be combined to achieve the most credible causal conclusions. Throughout the book, examples from the fields of medicine, public policy, and education are incorporated into the presentation of various topics. In addition, six detailed case studies illustrate concrete examples of the significance of biases in everyday research. Requiring only a basic understanding of statistics and probability theory, Bias and Causation is an excellent supplement for courses on research methods and applied statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level. It is also a valuable reference for practicing researchers and methodologists in various fields of study who work with statistical data. This book was selected as the 2011 Ziegel Prize Winner in Technometrics for the best book reviewed by the journal. It is also the winner of the 2010 PROSE Award for Mathematics from The American Publishers Awards for Professional and Scholarly Excellence
Category: Mathematics

Research Methods In Occupational Epidemiology

Author : Harvey Checkoway
ISBN : 9780199748662
Genre : Medical
File Size : 25.57 MB
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Occupational epidemiology has emerged as a distinct subdiscipline of epidemiology and occupational medicine, addressing fundamental public health and scientific questions relating to the specification of exposure-response relationships, assessment of the adequacy of occupational exposure guidelines, and extrapolation of hazardous effects to other settings. This book reviews the wide range of principles and methods used in epidemiologic studies of working populations. It describes the historical development of occupational epidemiology, the approaches to characterizing workplace exposures, and the methods for designing and implementing epidemiologic studies. The relative strengths and limitations of different study designs are emphasized. Also included are more advanced discussions of statistical analysis, the estimation of doses to biological targets, and applications of the data derived from occupational epidemiology studies to disease modeling and risk assessment. The volume will serve both as a textbook in epidemiology and occupational medicine courses and as a practical handbook for the design, implementation, and interpretation of research in this field.
Category: Medical

International Encyclopedia Of Public Health

Author :
ISBN : 9780128037089
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79.87 MB
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International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues
Category: Medical