ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CHLORPYRIFOS IN TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES

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Ecological Risk Assessment For Chlorpyrifos In Terrestrial And Aquatic Systems In The United States

Author : John P. Giesy
ISBN : 9783319038650
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.77 MB
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
Category: Science

Reviews Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology

Author : George W. Ware
ISBN : 0387986278
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.80 MB
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology provides detailed review articles concerned with aspects of chemical contaminants, including pesticides, in the total environment with toxicological considerations and consequences.
Category: Science

Endocrine Disruption

Author : David O. Norris
ISBN : 9780195137491
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72.32 MB
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Addresses the biological effects of the large number of compounds that have been recognized as endocrine disrupters. This book presents the relevant fundamentals of the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the toxicology, developmental toxicology, ecology, and risk assessment methods, and lays out the state of understanding for the field.
Category: Medical

Risk Assessment

Author : Michael C. Newman
ISBN : 1575040484
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56.52 MB
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Accurate risk assessments are vital to the protection of human, environmental, and ecosystem health. Risk Assessment provides a current, comprehensive reference for researchers and professionals concerned with environmental contamination as well as its effects on humans and ecosystems.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Species Sensitivity Distributions In Ecotoxicology

Author : Leo Posthuma
ISBN : 9781420032314
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 53.64 MB
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In spite of the growing importance of Species Sensitivity Distribution models (SSDs) in ecological risk assessments, the conceptual basis, strengths, and weaknesses of using them have not been comprehensively reviewed. This book fills that need. Written by a panel of international experts, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology reviews the current SSD methods from all angles, compiling for the first time the variety of contemporary applications of SSD-based methods. Beginning with an introduction to SSDs, the chapter authors review the issues surrounding SSDs, synthesizing the positions of advocates and critics with their own analysis of each issue. Finally, they discuss the prospects for future development, paving the way for improved future uses. In sum, this book defines the field of SSD modeling and application. It reveals a lively field, with SSD-applications extending beyond legally adopted quality criteria to other applications such as Life-Cycle Analysis. For anyone developing or revising environmental criteria or standards, this book explores the pros and cons of using the SSD approach. For anyone who needs to apply and interpret SSD-based criteria or standards, the book explains the basis for the numbers, thereby making it possible to correctly apply and defend them. For anyone performing ecological risk assessments, the book covers when and how to use SSDs including alternative assumptions, data treatments, computational methods, and available resources. Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology provides you with a clear picture of these standard models for estimating ecological risks from laboratory toxicity data.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Hormonally Active Agents In The Environment

Author : Committee on Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment
ISBN : 9780309064194
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.69 MB
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Some investigators have hypothesized that estrogens and other hormonally active agents found in the environment might be involved in breast cancer increases and sperm count declines in humans as well as deformities and reproductive problems seen in wildlife. This book looks in detail at the science behind the ominous prospect of "estrogen mimics" threatening health and well-being, from the level of ecosystems and populations to individual people and animals. The committee identifies research needs and offers specific recommendations to decisionmakers. This authoritative volume: Critically evaluates the literature on hormonally active agents in the environment and identifies known and suspected toxicologic mechanisms and effects of fish, wildlife, and humans. Examines whether and how exposure to hormonally active agents occurs--in diet, in pharmaceuticals, from industrial releases into the environment--and why the debate centers on estrogens. Identifies significant uncertainties, limitations of knowledge, and weaknesses in the scientific literature. The book presents a wealth of information and investigates a wide range of examples across the spectrum of life that might be related to these agents.
Category: Science

Handbook Of Chemical Risk Assessment

Author : Ronald Eisler
ISBN : 1420032747
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.43 MB
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Written over a period of 17 years, the Handbook of Chemical Risk Assessment exhaustively examines and analyzes the world literature on chemicals entering the environment from human activities. The three volumes cover chemicals recommended by environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other resource managers. The choices were based on the real or potential impact of each contaminant and on the knowledge available about their mitigation. The information for each chemical includes source and use; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects; lethal and sublethal effects; and proposed regulatory criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources. Each chapter selectively reviews and synthesizes the technical literature on a specific priority contaminant and its effects on the environment. Successful risk assessment relies heavily on extensive and well-documented databases. They often include too much - or too little - information about too many chemicals. Of the hundreds of thousands of chemicals discharged into the environment, only a small number have sufficient information to attempt preliminary risk assessment. Sold only as a three volume set, the Handbook of Chemical Risk Assessment provides you with the exact amount of information you need in a single resource.
Category: Science

Toxicology Of Organophosphate And Carbamate Compounds

Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
ISBN : 0080543103
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.42 MB
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This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs. In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides. Describes everything you need to know about Organophosphates and Carbamates Extensively covers pesticides, nerve agents, therapeutic drugs, and flame retardants Describes epidemiology of the world's major disasters involving Organophosphates and Carbamates Covers animal, human, aquatic, and wildlife toxicity of Anticholinesterases Insights into in-depth cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms of toxicity Describes recent advancements in cholinesterases, paraoxonases, carboxylesterases, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, and carcinogenesis Provides in vitro and in vivo models for neurotoxicity testing Integrates knowledge of studies in lab animals and humans Offers risk/safety assessment and national/international guidelines for permissible levels of pesticide residues Describes management of Anticholinesterase poisoning in humans
Category: Science

Ecological Impacts Of Toxic Chemicals

Author : Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink, Reinier M. Mann
ISBN : 9781608051212
Genre :
File Size : 45.81 MB
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Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals presents a comprehensive, yet readable account of the known disturbances caused by all kinds of toxic chemicals on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Topics cover the sources of toxicants, their fate and distribution through the planet, their impacts on specific ecosystems, and their remediation by natural systems. Each chapter is written by well-known specialists in those areas, for the general public, students, and even scientists from outside this field. The book intends to raise awareness of the dangers of chemical pollution in a world dominated by industry and globalization of resources. Because the problems are widespread and far reaching, it is hoped that confronting the facts may prompt better management practices at industrial, agricultural and all levels of management, from local to governmental, so as to reduce the negative impacts of chemical contaminants on our planet.
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