ECOLOGICAL MODELS FOR REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENTS OF PESTICIDES DEVELOPING A STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

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Ecological Models For Regulatory Risk Assessments Of Pesticides

Author : Pernille Thorbek
ISBN : 143980513X
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.14 MB
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Bringing together more than thirty influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists, Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that prevent ecological modeling being used routinely in regulatory submissions, and explores the actions needed to overcome these obstacles. The book focuses on the following issues: Uncertainties in the process of model development, such as design, analysis, documentation, and communication The availability of data and background information needed for optimal modeling The limited knowledge of modeling The lack of confidence in the outcome of ecological models and their reliability in pesticide risk assessment It also suggests future solutions to these challenges, including: A guidance document on the modeling process Case studies that show how ecological models can provide reliable ecologically relevant risk assessments Training the people who generate or evaluate results obtained by ecological models Focusing on ecological models, such as unstructured population models, stage-structured matrix models, and individual- or agent-based models, this volume helps regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and scientists assess the risk of plant protection products in nontarget organisms. Armed with this knowledge, readers will better understand the challenges of using ecological modeling in the regulatory process.
Category: Science

Pesticide Risk Assessment For Pollinators

Author : David Fischer
ISBN : 9781118852699
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.57 MB
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Pollinators play a vital role in ecosystem health and are essential to ensuring food security. With declines in both managed and wild pollinator populations in recent years, scientists and regulators have sought answers to this problem and have explored implementing steps to protect pollinator populations now and for the future. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators focuses on the role pesticides play in impacting bee populations and looks to develop a risk assessment process, along with the data to inform that process, to better assess the potential risks that can accompany the use of pesticide products. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators opens with two chapters that provide a biological background of both Apis and non-Apis species of pollinators. Chapters then present an overview of the general regulatory risk assessment process and decision-making processes. The book then discusses the core elements of a risk assessment, including exposure estimation, laboratory testing, and field testing. The book concludes with chapters on statistical and modeling tools, and proposed additional research that may be useful in developing the ability to assess the impacts of pesticide use on pollinator populations. Summarizing the current state of the science surrounding risk assessment for Apis and non-Apis species, Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators is a timely work that will be of great use to the environmental science and agricultural research communities. Assesses pesticide risk to native and managed pollinators Summarizes the state of the science in toxicity testing and risk assessment Provides valuable biological overviews of both Apis and non-Apis pollinators Develops a plausible overall risk assessment framework for regulatory decision making Looks towards a globally harmonized approach for pollinator toxicity and risk assessment
Category: Science

Soil Quality Standards For Trace Elements

Author : Graham Merrington
ISBN : 143983024X
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.83 MB
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A comprehensive and practical overview of the state of the science, Soil Quality Standards for Trace Elements: Derivation, Implementation, and Interpretation addresses the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements and the implementation of these standards within regulatory and risk assessment frameworks. Forty experts from 11 countries across Europe, Asia, and North America—a multidisciplinary group of government policy makers and regulators, academics, industry representatives, and consultants—provide a focused discussion on the science and methods underpinning the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements. Outlines the supporting science for setting environmental and human health standards Covers the application and practical use of soil quality standards for trace elements Contains recommendations on the development and use of soil quality standards for trace elements Identifies best practices in accounting for (bio)availability and exposure modelling in standard setting for soils The book provides a clear description of how to derive and implement soil quality standards for trace elements in order to assess human and environmental risks. It covers scientific developments useful for resolving discrepancies in the setting and implementation of soil quality standards. It provides useful tips, including do's, and don'ts on how to deal with issues such as variation of the natural background and soil type dependent toxicity.
Category: Science

Semi Field Methods For The Environmental Risk Assessment Of Pesticides In Soil

Author : Andreas Schaeffer
ISBN : 9781439828595
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.19 MB
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Based on discussions at the 2007 SETAC Europe PERAS Workshop in Coimbra, Semi-Field Methods for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Soil presents a timely summary of state-of-the-art higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs). Influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists provide a comprehensive, science-based view to guide regulatory authorities and manufacturers in assessing the higher-tier terrestrial risks of PPPs in the environment. The book includes a clear description of how to perform a higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment and provides a single reference on the subject. It examines various types of semi-field methods for soil assessment, including the use of terrestrial model ecosystems for pesticide risk assessment. In addition, the text also explores legislative and regulatory issues and offers technical recommendations. The book provides guidance on how to assess the soil risks of pesticides in the environment and explains how to use semi-field methods to access how pesticides may lead to spatial and temporal changes in soil biological communities and the larger agricultural landscape.
Category: Science

Encyclopedia Of Agriculture And Food Systems

Author :
ISBN : 9780080931395
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21.1 MB
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Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include: Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050? Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices? Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now? These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work. Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective. Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today. Full colour throughout.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecotoxicology Of Amphibians And Reptiles

Author : Donald W. Sparling
ISBN : 1420064169
Genre : Nature
File Size : 40.32 MB
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One of the major factors behind the writing of the First Edition was the worldwide phenomenon of declining amphibian populations. Although this decline has not abated, the breadth of research into its causes has expanded significantly. This book provides an authoritative compendium of the most recent information.
Category: Nature

Ecological Modeling In Risk Assessment

Author : Robert A. Pastorok
ISBN : 9781420032321
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84.89 MB
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Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author : Lawrence W. Barnthouse
ISBN : 1420053337
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 47.63 MB
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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Preparing For Future Products Of Biotechnology

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309452052
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.24 MB
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Between 1973 and 2016, the ways to manipulate DNA to endow new characteristics in an organism (that is, biotechnology) have advanced, enabling the development of products that were not previously possible. What will the likely future products of biotechnology be over the next 5â€"10 years? What scientific capabilities, tools, and/or expertise may be needed by the regulatory agencies to ensure they make efficient and sound evaluations of the likely future products of biotechnology? Preparing for Future Products of Biotechnology analyzes the future landscape of biotechnology products and seeks to inform forthcoming policy making. This report identifies potential new risks and frameworks for risk assessment and areas in which the risks or lack of risks relating to the products of biotechnology are well understood.
Category: Science

Pesticides

Author : Graham Matthews
ISBN : 9781118976029
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56.68 MB
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Crop protection continues to be an important component of modern farming to maintain food production to feed an expanding human population, but considerable changes have occurred in the regulation of pesticides in Europe in the last decade. The aim has been to reduce their impact on people and the environment. This has resulted in a major reduction in the number of chemicals approved for application on crops. In other parts of the world, a continuing expansion in the growing of genetically modified crops has also changed the pattern of pesticide use. In this second edition, Graham Matthews, updates how pesticides are registered and applied and the techniques used to mitigate their effects in the environment. Information on operator safety, protection of workers in crops treated with pesticides and spray drift affecting those who live in farming areas is also discussed. By bringing together the most recent research on pesticides in a single volume, this book provides a vital up to date resource for agricultural scientists, agronomists, plant scientists, plant pathologists, entomologists, environmental scientists, public health personnel, toxicologists and others working in the agrochemical industry and governments. It should assist development of improvements in harmonising regulation of pesticides in countries with limited resources for registration of pesticides.
Category: Technology & Engineering