ECOLOGICAL MODELS FOR REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENTS OF PESTICIDES DEVELOPING A STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

Download Ecological Models For Regulatory Risk Assessments Of Pesticides Developing A Strategy For The Future Society Of Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry ebook PDF or Read Online books in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to ECOLOGICAL MODELS FOR REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENTS OF PESTICIDES DEVELOPING A STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY book pdf for free now.

Ecological Models For Regulatory Risk Assessments Of Pesticides

Author : Pernille Thorbek
ISBN : 143980513X
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.89 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 305
Read : 765

Bringing together more than thirty influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists, Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that prevent ecological modeling being used routinely in regulatory submissions, and explores the actions needed to overcome these obstacles. The book focuses on the following issues: Uncertainties in the process of model development, such as design, analysis, documentation, and communication The availability of data and background information needed for optimal modeling The limited knowledge of modeling The lack of confidence in the outcome of ecological models and their reliability in pesticide risk assessment It also suggests future solutions to these challenges, including: A guidance document on the modeling process Case studies that show how ecological models can provide reliable ecologically relevant risk assessments Training the people who generate or evaluate results obtained by ecological models Focusing on ecological models, such as unstructured population models, stage-structured matrix models, and individual- or agent-based models, this volume helps regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and scientists assess the risk of plant protection products in nontarget organisms. Armed with this knowledge, readers will better understand the challenges of using ecological modeling in the regulatory process.
Category: Science

Pesticide Risk Assessment For Pollinators

Author : David Fischer
ISBN : 9781118852699
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.77 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 746
Read : 846

Pollinators play a vital role in ecosystem health and are essential to ensuring food security. With declines in both managed and wild pollinator populations in recent years, scientists and regulators have sought answers to this problem and have explored implementing steps to protect pollinator populations now and for the future. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators focuses on the role pesticides play in impacting bee populations and looks to develop a risk assessment process, along with the data to inform that process, to better assess the potential risks that can accompany the use of pesticide products. Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators opens with two chapters that provide a biological background of both Apis and non-Apis species of pollinators. Chapters then present an overview of the general regulatory risk assessment process and decision-making processes. The book then discusses the core elements of a risk assessment, including exposure estimation, laboratory testing, and field testing. The book concludes with chapters on statistical and modeling tools, and proposed additional research that may be useful in developing the ability to assess the impacts of pesticide use on pollinator populations. Summarizing the current state of the science surrounding risk assessment for Apis and non-Apis species, Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators is a timely work that will be of great use to the environmental science and agricultural research communities. Assesses pesticide risk to native and managed pollinators Summarizes the state of the science in toxicity testing and risk assessment Provides valuable biological overviews of both Apis and non-Apis pollinators Develops a plausible overall risk assessment framework for regulatory decision making Looks towards a globally harmonized approach for pollinator toxicity and risk assessment
Category: Science

Soil Quality Standards For Trace Elements

Author : Graham Merrington
ISBN : 143983024X
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.27 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 155
Read : 1110

A comprehensive and practical overview of the state of the science, Soil Quality Standards for Trace Elements: Derivation, Implementation, and Interpretation addresses the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements and the implementation of these standards within regulatory and risk assessment frameworks. Forty experts from 11 countries across Europe, Asia, and North America—a multidisciplinary group of government policy makers and regulators, academics, industry representatives, and consultants—provide a focused discussion on the science and methods underpinning the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements. Outlines the supporting science for setting environmental and human health standards Covers the application and practical use of soil quality standards for trace elements Contains recommendations on the development and use of soil quality standards for trace elements Identifies best practices in accounting for (bio)availability and exposure modelling in standard setting for soils The book provides a clear description of how to derive and implement soil quality standards for trace elements in order to assess human and environmental risks. It covers scientific developments useful for resolving discrepancies in the setting and implementation of soil quality standards. It provides useful tips, including do's, and don'ts on how to deal with issues such as variation of the natural background and soil type dependent toxicity.
Category: Science

Semi Field Methods For The Environmental Risk Assessment Of Pesticides In Soil

Author : Andreas Schaeffer
ISBN : 9781439828595
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.68 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 704
Read : 210

Based on discussions at the 2007 SETAC Europe PERAS Workshop in Coimbra, Semi-Field Methods for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Soil presents a timely summary of state-of-the-art higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs). Influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists provide a comprehensive, science-based view to guide regulatory authorities and manufacturers in assessing the higher-tier terrestrial risks of PPPs in the environment. The book includes a clear description of how to perform a higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment and provides a single reference on the subject. It examines various types of semi-field methods for soil assessment, including the use of terrestrial model ecosystems for pesticide risk assessment. In addition, the text also explores legislative and regulatory issues and offers technical recommendations. The book provides guidance on how to assess the soil risks of pesticides in the environment and explains how to use semi-field methods to access how pesticides may lead to spatial and temporal changes in soil biological communities and the larger agricultural landscape.
Category: Science

Encyclopedia Of Agriculture And Food Systems

Author :
ISBN : 9780080931395
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61.16 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 175
Read : 1093

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include: Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050? Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices? Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now? These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work. Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective. Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today. Full colour throughout.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ecotoxicology Of Amphibians And Reptiles Second Edition

Author : Donald W. Sparling
ISBN : 9781420064179
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.23 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 856
Read : 639

Building on the success of its popular predecessor, the second edition of Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles presents newly available findings on the species that are important environmental indicators. This new edition covers nearly twice as many topics as the first, including recent developments in the ecotoxicology of amphibians and reptiles, the current status of these animals, and intrinsic factors that affect their susceptibility to contaminants. The book also provides the latest information on specific groups of contaminants and their effects and body burdens in herpetafauna. After a review of how contaminants interact with other ecological factors, the text explores concerns for the future. New in the second edition: New research on the effects of pesticides, heavy metals, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and UVB Increased focus on the effects of contaminants rather than merely reporting residue information A synthesis of information on atrazine and its effects on gonads at low concentrations Coverage of the potentially alarming new cadre of chemicals that have recently or are about to come on the market for which there is very little or no information Important advances in surveying and monitoring One of the major factors behind the writing of the first edition was the worldwide phenomenon of declining amphibian populations. Although this decline has not abated, the breadth of research into its causes has expanded significantly. With chapter contributors carefully selected by the team of editors as leaders in their fields, this book provides an authoritative compendium of the most recent information on effects and residues coupled with a syntheses of what these numbers mean to science and policy.
Category: Science

Mixture Toxicity

Author : Cornelis A. M. van Gestel
ISBN : 1439830096
Genre : Medical
File Size : 45.52 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 933
Read : 672

In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.
Category: Medical

Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology

Author : Jerry L. Farris
ISBN : 1420042858
Genre : Science
File Size : 58.60 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 777
Read : 1208

Responding to the growing need for an aggressive yet conservative approach to evaluating mussel populations, Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology provides a collective review of the techniques and approaches for assessing contaminant impact on freshwater ecosystems. The editors incorporate coverage of research topics and management issues from a cross-section of scientists in the field. They explore current advances in general monitoring of population responses to stressors, fundamental concepts of ecotoxicology specific to burrowing bivalves, and useful insights that offer direction and priority for resolving specific problems challenging protection and conservation efforts. This book lays the groundwork with discussions of topics such as impact assessment, toxicokinetics, biomarkers, and pollution tolerance. The authors then explore fundamental concepts surrounding responses measured in freshwater bivalves as a consequence of chemical exposures or accumulated contaminants in target organs or tissues. They highlight the difficulties encountered with the laboratory culture of these organisms for toxicity testing or other controlled experiments, and examine the use of surrogate test organisms to relate sensitivities of response and reduce pressure on already impacted fauna. The book also reviews innovative field research using in situ bivalve toxicity testing, discusses effects-oriented tissue contaminant assessment, and concludes with threefour specific laboratory or combined field/laboratory ecotoxicology studies. A summary of methods from more than 75 laboratory toxicity studies conducted with freshwater mussels, the book provides an overview of a standardized method for conducting water-only acute and chronic laboratory toxicity tests with glochidia juvenile freshwater mussels. It focuses on studies that report measured contaminant treatments, had robust experimental designs, including replication of control and contaminant treatments, and were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The resulting array of viewpoints provides a framework that can be used to establish priorities in the rehabilitation and management of freshwater ecosystems.
Category: Science

Information Resources In Toxicology

Author : P.J. Bert Hakkinen
ISBN : 9780080534664
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75.14 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 216
Read : 1218

Information Resources in Toxicology, Third Edition is a sourcebook for anyone who needs to know where to find toxicology information. It provides an up-to-date selective guide to a large variety of sources--books, journals, organizations, audiovisuals, internet and electronic sources, and more. For the Third Edition, the editors have selected, organized, and updated the most relevant information available. New information on grants and other funding opportunities, physical hazards, patent literature, and technical reports have also been added. This comprehensive, time-saving tool is ideal for toxicologists, pharmacologists, drug companies, testing labs, libraries, poison control centers, physicians, legal and regulatory professionals, and chemists. Serves as an all-in-one resource for toxicology information New edition includes information on publishers, grants and other funding opportunities, physical hazards, patent literature, and technical reports Updated to include the latest internet and electronic sources, e-mail addresses, etc. Provides valuable data about the new fields that have emerged within toxicological research; namely, the biochemical, cellular, molecular, and genetic aspects
Category: Medical

Population Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author : Lawrence W. Barnthouse
ISBN : 1420053337
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59.9 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 213
Read : 766

Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.
Category: Technology & Engineering