ECOLOGICAL MODELS AND DATA IN R

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Ecological Models And Data In R

Author : Benjamin M. Bolker
ISBN : 9781400840908
Genre : Nature
File Size : 41.62 MB
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Ecological Models and Data in R is the first truly practical introduction to modern statistical methods for ecology. In step-by-step detail, the book teaches ecology graduate students and researchers everything they need to know in order to use maximum likelihood, information-theoretic, and Bayesian techniques to analyze their own data using the programming language R. Drawing on extensive experience teaching these techniques to graduate students in ecology, Benjamin Bolker shows how to choose among and construct statistical models for data, estimate their parameters and confidence limits, and interpret the results. The book also covers statistical frameworks, the philosophy of statistical modeling, and critical mathematical functions and probability distributions. It requires no programming background--only basic calculus and statistics. Practical, beginner-friendly introduction to modern statistical techniques for ecology using the programming language R Step-by-step instructions for fitting models to messy, real-world data Balanced view of different statistical approaches Wide coverage of techniques--from simple (distribution fitting) to complex (state-space modeling) Techniques for data manipulation and graphical display Companion Web site with data and R code for all examples
Category: Nature

Ecological Models And Data In R

Author : Benjamin M. Bolker
ISBN : 9780691125220
Genre : Computers
File Size : 58.84 MB
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Introduction and background; Exploratory data analysis and graphics; Deterministic functions for ecological modeling; Probability and stochastic distributions for ecological modeling; Stochatsic simulation and power analysis; Likelihood and all that; Optimization and all that; Likelihood examples; Standar statistics revisited; Modeling variance; Dynamic models.
Category: Computers

Mixed Effects Models And Extensions In Ecology With R

Author : Alain Zuur
ISBN : 0387874585
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.68 MB
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This book discusses advanced statistical methods that can be used to analyse ecological data. Most environmental collected data are measured repeatedly over time, or space and this requires the use of GLMM or GAMM methods. The book starts by revising regression, additive modelling, GAM and GLM, and then discusses dealing with spatial or temporal dependencies and nested data.
Category: Science

A Practical Guide To Ecological Modelling

Author : Karline Soetaert
ISBN : 9781402086243
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.12 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Mathematical modelling is an essential tool in present-day ecological research. Yet for many ecologists it is still problematic to apply modelling in their research. In our experience, the major problem is at the conceptual level: proper understanding of what a model is, how ecological relations can be translated consistently into mathematical equations, how models are solved, steady states calculated and interpreted. Many textbooks jump over these conceptual hurdles to dive into detailed formulations or the mathematics of solution. This book attempts to fill that gap. It introduces essential concepts for mathematical modelling, explains the mathematics behind the methods, and helps readers to implement models and obtain hands-on experience. Throughout the book, emphasis is laid on how to translate ecological questions into interpretable models in a practical way. The book aims to be an introductory textbook at the undergraduate-graduate level, but will also be useful to seduce experienced ecologists into the world of modelling. The range of ecological models treated is wide, from Lotka-Volterra type of principle-seeking models to environmental or ecosystem models, and including matrix models, lattice models and sequential decision models. All chapters contain a concise introduction into the theory, worked-out examples and exercises. All examples are implemented in the open-source package R, thus taking away problems of software availability for use of the book. All code used in the book is available on a dedicated website.
Category: Science

Environmental And Ecological Statistics With R Second Edition

Author : Song S. Qian
ISBN : 9781498728737
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 35.75 MB
Format : PDF
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Emphasizing the inductive nature of statistical thinking, Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition, connects applied statistics to the environmental and ecological fields. Using examples from published works in the ecological and environmental literature, the book explains the approach to solving a statistical problem, covering model specification, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. It includes many examples to illustrate the statistical methods and presents R code for their implementation. The emphasis is on model interpretation and assessment, and using several core examples throughout the book, the author illustrates the iterative nature of statistical inference. The book starts with a description of commonly used statistical assumptions and exploratory data analysis tools for the verification of these assumptions. It then focuses on the process of building suitable statistical models, including linear and nonlinear models, classification and regression trees, generalized linear models, and multilevel models. It also discusses the use of simulation for model checking, and provides tools for a critical assessment of the developed models. The second edition also includes a complete critique of a threshold model. Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition focuses on statistical modeling and data analysis for environmental and ecological problems. By guiding readers through the process of scientific problem solving and statistical model development, it eases the transition from scientific hypothesis to statistical model.
Category: Mathematics

Bayesian Data Analysis In Ecology Using Linear Models With R Bugs And Stan

Author : Franzi Korner-Nievergelt
ISBN : 9780128016787
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.24 MB
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Bayesian Data Analysis in Ecology Using Linear Models with R, BUGS, and STAN examines the Bayesian and frequentist methods of conducting data analyses. The book provides the theoretical background in an easy-to-understand approach, encouraging readers to examine the processes that generated their data. Including discussions of model selection, model checking, and multi-model inference, the book also uses effect plots that allow a natural interpretation of data. Bayesian Data Analysis in Ecology Using Linear Models with R, BUGS, and STAN introduces Bayesian software, using R for the simple modes, and flexible Bayesian software (BUGS and Stan) for the more complicated ones. Guiding the ready from easy toward more complex (real) data analyses ina step-by-step manner, the book presents problems and solutions—including all R codes—that are most often applicable to other data and questions, making it an invaluable resource for analyzing a variety of data types. Introduces Bayesian data analysis, allowing users to obtain uncertainty measurements easily for any derived parameter of interest Written in a step-by-step approach that allows for eased understanding by non-statisticians Includes a companion website containing R-code to help users conduct Bayesian data analyses on their own data All example data as well as additional functions are provided in the R-package blmeco
Category: Science

Hierarchical Modeling And Inference In Ecology

Author : J. Andrew Royle
ISBN : 9780080559254
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.58 MB
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A guide to data collection, modeling and inference strategies for biological survey data using Bayesian and classical statistical methods. This book describes a general and flexible framework for modeling and inference in ecological systems based on hierarchical models, with a strict focus on the use of probability models and parametric inference. Hierarchical models represent a paradigm shift in the application of statistics to ecological inference problems because they combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are developed and applied to problems in population, metapopulation, community, and metacommunity systems. The book provides the first synthetic treatment of many recent methodological advances in ecological modeling and unifies disparate methods and procedures. The authors apply principles of hierarchical modeling to ecological problems, including * occurrence or occupancy models for estimating species distribution * abundance models based on many sampling protocols, including distance sampling * capture-recapture models with individual effects * spatial capture-recapture models based on camera trapping and related methods * population and metapopulation dynamic models * models of biodiversity, community structure and dynamics * Wide variety of examples involving many taxa (birds, amphibians, mammals, insects, plants) * Development of classical, likelihood-based procedures for inference, as well as Bayesian methods of analysis * Detailed explanations describing the implementation of hierarchical models using freely available software such as R and WinBUGS * Computing support in technical appendices in an online companion web site
Category: Science

How To Be A Quantitative Ecologist

Author : Jason Matthiopoulos
ISBN : 1119991722
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30.60 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Ecological research is becoming increasingly quantitative, yet students often opt out of courses in mathematics and statistics, unwittingly limiting their ability to carry out research in the future. This textbook provides a practical introduction to quantitative ecology for students and practitioners who have realised that they need this opportunity. The text is addressed to readers who haven't used mathematics since school, who were perhaps more confused than enlightened by their undergraduate lectures in statistics and who have never used a computer for much more than word processing and data entry. From this starting point, it slowly but surely instils an understanding of mathematics, statistics and programming, sufficient for initiating research in ecology. The book’s practical value is enhanced by extensive use of biological examples and the computer language R for graphics, programming and data analysis. Key Features: Provides a complete introduction to mathematics statistics and computing for ecologists. Presents a wealth of ecological examples demonstrating the applied relevance of abstract mathematical concepts, showing how a little technique can go a long way in answering interesting ecological questions. Covers elementary topics, including the rules of algebra, logarithms, geometry, calculus, descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing and linear regression. Explores more advanced topics including fractals, non-linear dynamical systems, likelihood and Bayesian estimation, generalised linear, mixed and additive models, and multivariate statistics. R boxes provide step-by-step recipes for implementing the graphical and numerical techniques outlined in each section. How to be a Quantitative Ecologist provides a comprehensive introduction to mathematics, statistics and computing and is the ideal textbook for late undergraduate and postgraduate courses in environmental biology. "With a book like this, there is no excuse for people to be afraid of maths, and to be ignorant of what it can do." —Professor Tim Benton, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, UK
Category: Mathematics

A Biologist S Guide To Mathematical Modeling In Ecology And Evolution

Author : Sarah P. Otto
ISBN : 9781400840915
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.86 MB
Format : PDF
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Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available
Category: Science