DYNAMICS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS AND ASSOCIATIONS SAAS FEE ADVANCED COURSE 42 SWISS SOCIETY FOR ASTROPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

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Dynamics Of Young Star Clusters And Associations

Author : Cathie J. Clarke
ISBN : 9783662472903
Genre : Science
File Size : 58.89 MB
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Where do most stars (and the planetary systems that surround them) in the Milky Way form? What determines whether a young star cluster remains bound (such as an open or globular cluster), or disperses to join the field stars in the disc of the Galaxy? These questions not only impact understanding of the origins of stars and planetary systems like our own (and the potential for life to emerge that they represent), but also galaxy formation and evolution, and ultimately the story of star formation over cosmic time in the Universe. This volume will help readers understand our current views concerning the answers to these questions as well as frame new questions that will be answered by the European Space Agency's Gaia satellite that was launched in late 2013. The book contains the elaborated notes of lectures given at the 42nd Saas-Fee Advanced Course “Dynamics of Young Star Clusters & Associations" by Cathie Clarke (University of Cambridge) who presents the theory of star formation and dynamical evolution of stellar systems, Robert Mathieu (University of Wisconsin) who discusses the kinematics of star clusters and associations, and I. Neill Reid (S pace Telescope Science Institute) who provides an overview of the stellar populations in the Milky Way and speculates on from whence came the Sun. As part of the Saas-Fee Advanced Course Series, the book offers an in-depth introduction to the field serving as a starting point for Ph.D. research and as a reference work for professional astrophysicists.
Category: Science

The Origin Of The Galaxy And Local Group

Author : Joss Bland-Hawthorn
ISBN : 9783642417207
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.78 MB
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This volume contains the updated and expanded lecture notes of the 37th Saas-Fee Advanced Course organised by the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. It offers the most comprehensive and up to date review of one of the hottest research topics in astrophysics - how our Milky Way galaxy formed. Joss Bland-Hawthorn & Ken Freeman lectured on Near Field Cosmology - The Origin of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Francesca Matteucci’s chapter is on Chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its Satellites. As designed by the SSAA, books in this series – and this one too – are targeted at graduate and PhD students and young researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Lecturers and researchers entering the field will also benefit from the book.
Category: Science

Gravitational Lensing Strong Weak And Micro

Author : Peter Schneider
ISBN : 9783540303107
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.11 MB
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The observation, in 1919 by A.S. Eddington and collaborators, of the gra- tational de?ection of light by the Sun proved one of the many predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity: The Sun was the ?rst example of a gravitational lens. In 1936, Albert Einstein published an article in which he suggested - ing stars as gravitational lenses. A year later, Fritz Zwicky pointed out that galaxies would act as lenses much more likely than stars, and also gave a list of possible applications, as a means to determine the dark matter content of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It was only in 1979 that the ?rst example of an extragalactic gravitational lens was provided by the observation of the distant quasar QSO 0957+0561, by D. Walsh, R.F. Carswell, and R.J. Weymann. A few years later, the ?rst lens showing images in the form of arcs was detected. The theory, observations, and applications of gravitational lensing cons- tute one of the most rapidly growing branches of astrophysics. The gravi- tional de?ection of light generated by mass concentrations along a light path producesmagni?cation,multiplicity,anddistortionofimages,anddelaysp- ton propagation from one line of sight relative to another. The huge amount of scienti?c work produced over the last decade on gravitational lensing has clearly revealed its already substantial and wide impact, and its potential for future astrophysical applications.
Category: Science

Solar And Stellar Dynamos

Author : Paul Charbonneau
ISBN : 9783642320934
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.5 MB
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Astrophysical dynamos are at the heart of cosmic magnetic fields of a wide range of scales, from planets and stars to entire galaxies. This book presents a thorough, step-by-step introduction to solar and stellar dynamos. Looking first at the ultimate origin of cosmic seed magnetic fields, the antagonists of field amplification are next considered: resistive decay, flux expulsion, and flows ruled out by anti-dynamo theorems. Two kinematic flows that can act as dynamos are then studied: the Roberts cell and the CP-flow. Mean-field electrodynamics and derivation of the mean-field dynamo equations lead to the alpha Omega-dynamo, the flux transport dynamo, and dynamos based on the Babcock-Leighton mechanism. Alternatives to the mean-field theory are also presented, as are global MHD dynamo simulations. Fluctuations and grand minima in the solar cycle are discussed in terms of dynamo modulations through stochastic forcing and nonlinear effects. The book concludes with an overview of the major challenges in understanding stellar magnetic fields and their evolution in terms of various dynamo models, global MHD simulations, and fossil fields. Each chapter is accompanied by an annotated bibliography, guiding the readers to the relevant technical literature, which may lead them to carry out their own research in the field of dynamo theory.
Category: Science

First Light In The Universe

Author : Abraham Loeb
ISBN : 9783540741633
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.10 MB
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The exploration of the first billion years of the history of the Universe represents one of the great challenges of contemporary astrophysics. During this time, the first structures start to form the first stars, galaxies, and possibly also soon the first quasars. At the same time, light comes to the dark, neutral Universe. This book contains the worked out lectures given at the 36th Saas-Fee Advanced Course "First Light in the Universe" by three eminent scientists in the field.
Category: Science

Unveiling Galaxies

Author : Jean-René Roy
ISBN : 9781108417013
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.51 MB
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A thought provoking study of the powerful impact of images in guiding astronomers' understanding of galaxies through time.
Category: Science

Advances In Hydroinformatics

Author : Philippe Gourbesville
ISBN : 9789812876157
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.54 MB
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This book is a collection of extended papers based on presentations given during the SIMHYDRO 2014 conference, held in Sophia Antipolis in June 2014. It focuses on the modeling and simulation of fast hydraulic transients, on 3D modeling, and on uncertainties and multiphase flows. The book explores both the limitations and performance of current models and presents the latest developments based on new numerical schemes, high-performance computing, multiphysics and multiscale methods, and better interaction with field or scale model data. It addresses the interests of practitioners, stakeholders, researchers and engineers active in this field.
Category: Science

Encyclopedia Of Science And Technology Communication

Author : Susanna Hornig Priest
ISBN : 9781452265780
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 87.60 MB
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For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit www.sagepub.com/freetrial In the academic world, the term "science communication" refers both to a set of professions (such as science journalism and public information work) and to an interdisciplinary scholarly research specialization. Much of this research is aimed at improving our understanding of the best ways to communicate complex information, especially to people who are not scientists. Science communication specialists are concerned with giving people useful information about health, environment, and technology – as well as science itself. In order to do this, we also need to improve our understanding of how people think, form opinions, and process information. Additionally, professional practitioners in science communication are engaged in strategic and ethical decisions every day, such as: How should reporters cover the issue of climate change? Should the views of scientists who do not believe that climate change has been caused by human activity be included alongside the views of those who do, in order to give a "balanced" story, or does this mislead the public into thinking that both of these positions are equally accepted within the scientific community? The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication provides information on the entire range of interrelated issues in this interdisciplinary field in one place, along with clear suggestions on where to begin the search for more. Geared towards undergraduate and graduate students in journalism, communication, mass communication, and media studies, as well as towards working journalists, public information officers, and public relations specialists, this encyclopedia introduces this vast, fascinating field while challenging the reader to question assumptions inherent in communication across disciplinary boundaries. Key Themes Associations and Organizations Audiences, Opinions, and Effects Challenges, Issues, and Controversies Changing Awareness, Opinion, And Behavior Critical Influences and Events Global and International Aspects Government Agencies (US) History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science Important Figures Journal Publications Key Cases and Current Trends Law, Policy, Ethics, and Beliefs Major Infrastructural Initiatives Practices, Strategies, and Tools Professional Roles and Careers Public Engagement Approaches Theory and Research Venues and Channels
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Dark Matter And Dark Energy

Author : Sabino Matarrese
ISBN : 9048186854
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.43 MB
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This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift surveys and weak gravitational lensing observations. Included is a chapter reviewing extensively the direct and indirect methods of detection of the hypothetical dark matter particles. Also included is a self-contained introduction to the techniques and most important results of numerical (e.g. N-body) simulations in cosmology. " This volume will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology Physics and Mathematics, who are interested in cosmology, dark matter and dark energy.
Category: Science

The Cosmic Century

Author : M. S. Longair
ISBN : 9780521474368
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.96 MB
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Reviews the historical development of all the key areas of modern astrophysics.
Category: Science