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Decision Making In High Risk Organizations Under Stress Conditions

Author : Anthony J. Spurgin
ISBN : 9781498721233
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.88 MB
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This book discusses management decision-making under accident conditions as a vehicle to confirm the importance of clear decision-making guided by a systems approach on how an organization functions related to the role of managers, operators, and the operation of the plant. The book shows how to effectively assess the reliability of an organization particularly those organizations responsible for critical infrastructure. The authors have used Stafford Beer’s cybernetic model as a basis to model the behavior and reliability of such organizations. A series of case studies are used to draw conclusions not only how training, experience, and education can improve the strategy and response of management to reduce the probability of an economic or social disaster, but also draw attention to the fact that managers need to be made aware of the consequences of their decisions. Poor management decisions made under stress conditions can lead to the collapse of an organization together with its underlying business, possibly linked to a social disaster with loss of life. Some technology-ignorant management decisions even under non-stress conditions can lead to dangerous situations, which can increase the economic burden placed on an organization. This book describes such situations in order to promote improvement in organizational preparedness by training, experience, and education to reduce safety and economic risks. This book offers: • Case studies of accidents that have affected different HROs (high-risk organizations) and others, due to poor decision-making by management • Training methods (advocated by Admiral Hyman Rickover, adopted by military bodies and others) to prepare staff to make critical decisions under difficult conditions and examine their applicability to training managers of high-risk facilities • Documentation on how making decisions in difficult situations have psychological constraints related to the degree of preparedness and the tools available to aid the decision maker(s) • Studies on the key actions taken before, during, and after accidents and how these management decisions can affect accident propagation, and how one could improve management decision-making by the use of training in decision-making and an understanding of Ross Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety. • Simulation techniques to improve training of front-line operators and management • Consideration of cost and investment evaluations and how they can distort the selection of tactics and measures that ensure successful operations and avoidance of accidents
Category: Technology & Engineering

Decision Making Under Stress

Author : Eduardo Salas
ISBN : 9781351945943
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68.35 MB
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In our high technology society, there is a growing demand for a better understanding of decision making in high risk situations in order to improve selection, training and operational performance. Decision Making Under Stress presents a state-of-the-art review of psychological theory, in research and practice, on decision making in high pressure and emergency situations. It focuses on the experienced decision makers who deal with such risks, principally on flight decks, at civil emergencies, in industrial settings and military environments. The 29 chapters cover a wide range of perspectives and applications from aviation, military, industry and the emergency services. The authors, all international invited experts in their field, are based in research centers and universities from Europe, North America and Australia. Their common interest is in the theories and methods of a new research domain called NDM (naturalistic decision making). This volume comprises the edited contributions to the Third International NDM conference, sponsored by the US Army Research Institute and the US Naval Air Warfare Center, which was held in Aberdeen, Scotland in September 1996. The NDM researchers are interested in decision making in situations characterised by high risk, time pressure, uncertain goals, ambiguous information and teamwork. The extent to which the NDM approach can explain and predict human performance in such settings is a central theme, discussed with many practical examples and applications. This book is essential reading for applied psychologists, pilots, emergency commanders, military officers, high hazard managers, safety and emergency response professionals.
Category: Business & Economics

Stress And Human Performance

Author : James E. Driskell
ISBN : 9781134771899
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86.48 MB
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The pace of life in our high technology world has quickened. Industries that do not become more efficient, often by requiring a faster production turnaround with less slack, are superseded. Because of this, workers face an environment in which they must perform under more time pressure and under greater task load, in which stress is more prevalent, and in which consequences of poor performance are more critical than ever before. The dominant, if unstated, psychoanalytic paradigm underlying much stress research over the past fifty years has led to an emphasis on coping and defense mechanisms and to a preoccupation with disordered behavior and illness. Accordingly, almost any book with "stress" in the title will invariably devote a considerable amount of pages to topics such as stress-related disorders, clinical interventions, stress and coping, psychopathology, illness, and health issues. This book presents basic and applied research that addresses the effects of acute stress on performance. There are a large number of applied settings that share the commonalities of high demand, high risk performance conditions, including aviation; military operations; nuclear, chemical, and other industrial settings; emergency medicine; mining; firefighting; and police work, as well as everyday settings in which individuals face stressors such as noise, time pressure, and high task load. This book focuses directly on the effects of acute stress-- defined as intense, novel stress of limited duration--on performance. The effects of stress on task performance, decision making, and team interaction are discussed, as well as the interventions used to overcome them.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Decision Making In Behavioral Emergencies

Author : Phillip M. Kleespies
ISBN : 1433816644
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 34.68 MB
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"In this volume, I describe a model for acquiring skill and attaining competence in evaluating and managing behavioral emergencies. The model involves having a knowledge base as described in the book by Kleespies (2009), but beyond that it requires considerably more. Thus, it involves learning a decision-making strategy that is suited to intense, high-pressure, time-limited conditions such as those that can occur when patients may be at imminent risk of life-threatening behavior. It involves a gradated type of stress training (SET or stress exposure training) that enables the clinician-in-training to avoid becoming overwhelmed and allows him or her to gain key emergency-related experiences. These experiences prime the clinician to be able to quickly "size up" future crises and emergencies and respond to them more rapidly and effectively. The gradated approach to training further allows the clinician to begin to see these high-pressure situations as challenges that can be managed rather than as anxiety-provoking situations that seem beyond his or her capability. As noted in various places in this volume, behavioral emergencies force clinicians to confront what can be life-and-death decisions. If there is a negative outcome, serious clinical, ethical, legal, and professional questions can be raised about the management of the case. As pointed out, there have been numerous calls to action to improve the training of mental health clinicians in suicide risk assessment and intervention. These calls have largely gone unheeded (Schmitz et al., 2012). There is little reason to think that training in the evaluation and management of potential patient violence is appreciably better. In this vein, is it not time for professional psychology to embrace training and competence in such a critical area of practice as the assessment and management of patient life-threatening behaviors?"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Category: Psychology

Think Again

Author : Sydney Finkelstein
ISBN : 9781422133378
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 63.37 MB
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Why do smart and experienced leaders make flawed, even catastrophic, decisions? Why do people keep believing they have made the right choice, even with the disastrous result staring them in the face? And how can you be sure you're making the right decision--without the benefit of hindsight? Sydney Finkelstein, Jo Whitehead, and Andrew Campbell show how the usually beneficial processes of the human mind can become traps when we face big decisions. The authors show how the shortcuts our brains have learned to take over millennia of evolution can derail our decision making. Think Again offers a powerful model for making better decisions, describing the key red flags to watch for and detailing the decision-making safeguards we need. Using examples from business, politics, and history, Think Again deconstructs bad decisions, as they unfolded in real time, to show how you can avoid the same fate.
Category: Business & Economics

Computer Supported Decision Making

Author : Charles L. Smith (Sr.)
ISBN : 156750356X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36.52 MB
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There is a tide of competitiveness rising across the sea of business. The issues being faced by the business commanders of today are rapidly becoming more complex. Veritable waves of information are crashing down on organizational decision makers. While the environment is becoming more complex, it is getting tougher to discern the relevant information from among the flood of available data. The demand for accurate, rapid decision making is impelling today's decision makers to wonder about the existence of some sort of job-preserving assistance. These decision makers are often awash in political controversy as well as technical, economic, social, and legal considerations. Relief from this sea of troubles may come from a behaviorally-responsive decision support system (DSS) in the form of computer assistance that considers the decision maker's cognitive and emotional needs. This book describes a DSS that will meet the needs of modern organization decision makers.
Category: Business & Economics

The Oxford Handbook Of Behavioral Emergencies And Crises

Author : Phillip M. Kleespies
ISBN : 9780199352722
Genre :
File Size : 34.34 MB
Format : PDF
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The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Emergencies and Crises includes the most up-to-date and valuable research on the evaluation and management of the most challenging patients or clients faced by mental health providers-individuals who are at high risk of suicide, of other-directed violence, or of becoming the victims of interpersonal violence. These are cases in which the outcome can be serious injury or death, and there can be negative consequences not only for the patient, but also for the patient's family and friends, for the assessing or treating clinician, and for the patient's clinic or medical center. Virtually all mental health clinicians with an active caseload will see individuals with such issues. This Handbook is comprised of chapters by leading clinicians, researchers, and scholars in this area of practice. It presents a framework for learning the skills needed for assessing and working competently with such high-risk individuals. Chapters draw a distinction between behavioral emergencies and crises, and between emergency intervention and crisis intervention. The book examines the inter-related aspects of the major behavioral emergencies; that is, for example, the degree to which interpersonal victimization may lead an individual on a pathway to later suicidal or violent behavior, or the degree to which suicidal individuals and violent individuals may share certain cognitive characteristics. This resource is not simply a knowledge base for behavioral emergencies; it also presents a method for reducing stress and acquiring skills in working with high-risk people.

Organizational Behavior

Author : Ricky Griffin
ISBN : 9780538478137
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 49.37 MB
Format : PDF
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Prepare your students today to become strong, effective managers tomorrow with the powerful concepts and practical applications found in Griffin/Moorhead’s ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: MANAGING PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS, Tenth Edition. This reader-oriented text helps you equip your students with the skills and solid understanding to meet the management challenges of a new century. The book’s applied approach balances classic management ideas with the most recent OB developments and contemporary trends, such as the effects of the recession; how to manage people in these challenging times; the new role of stress on motivation and leadership; and effects of downsizing. Students delve into the core concepts of human behavior and industrial psychology within the help of memorable real examples and cases drawn from relevent organizations and managers such as Steve Jobs, Eddie Bauer, Cirque du Soleil,, Whole Foods, Nike, and Goldman Sachs. Fresh new cases, proven end-of-chapter exercises, activities, and an optional case and exercises help you equip your students with the assets, tools, and resources to compete effectively amid a world of change. Students grasp the fundamental of human behavior in organizations and the ability to develop new answers to new challenges as they learn to understand the people who comprise an organization, understand change, and understand how organizations must respond to change. Equip and energize the next generation of managers for the most exciting task of tomorrow: managing people effectively within competitive organizations. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Category: Business & Economics

Crossing The Quality Chasm

Author : Committee on Quality of Health Care in America
ISBN : 9780309072809
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65.83 MB
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Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project Today's health care providers have more research findings and more technology available to them than ever before. Yet recent reports have raised serious doubts about the quality of health care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm makes an urgent call for fundamental change to close the quality gap. This book recommends a sweeping redesign of the American health care system and provides overarching principles for specific direction for policymakers, health care leaders, clinicians, regulators, purchasers, and others. In this comprehensive volume the committee offers: A set of performance expectations for the 21st century health care system. A set of 10 new rules to guide patient-clinician relationships. A suggested organizing framework to better align the incentives inherent in payment and accountability with improvements in quality. Key steps to promote evidence-based practice and strengthen clinical information systems. Analyzing health care organizations as complex systems, Crossing the Quality Chasm also documents the causes of the quality gap, identifies current practices that impede quality care, and explores how systems approaches can be used to implement change.
Category: Medical

Improving The Quality Of Health Care For Mental And Substance Use Conditions

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309133661
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44.70 MB
Format : PDF
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Each year, more than 33 million Americans receive health care for mental or substance-use conditions, or both. Together, mental and substance-use illnesses are the leading cause of death and disability for women, the highest for men ages 15-44, and the second highest for all men. Effective treatments exist, but services are frequently fragmented and, as with general health care, there are barriers that prevent many from receiving these treatments as designed or at all. The consequences of this are seriousâ€"for these individuals and their families; their employers and the workforce; for the nation’s economy; as well as the education, welfare, and justice systems. Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions examines the distinctive characteristics of health care for mental and substance-use conditions, including payment, benefit coverage, and regulatory issues, as well as health care organization and delivery issues. This new volume in the Quality Chasm series puts forth an agenda for improving the quality of this care based on this analysis. Patients and their families, primary health care providers, specialty mental health and substance-use treatment providers, health care organizations, health plans, purchasers of group health care, and all involved in health care for mental and substanceâ€"use conditions will benefit from this guide to achieving better care.
Category: Medical