COUNTERFACTUALS AND CAUSAL INFERENCE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH

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Counterfactuals And Causal Inference

Author : Stephen L. Morgan
ISBN : 9781107065079
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80.37 MB
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This new edition aims to convince social scientists to take a counterfactual approach to the core questions of their fields.
Category: Mathematics

Spatial Analysis For The Social Sciences

Author : David Darmofal
ISBN : 9780521888264
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63.66 MB
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This book shows how to model the spatial interactions between actors that are at the heart of the social sciences.
Category: Political Science

Counterfactuals And Causal Inference Introduction 2 The Counterfactual Model Part Ii Estimating Causal Effects By Conditioning 3 Causal Graphs Identification And Models Of Causal Exposure 4 Matching Estimators Of Causal Effects 5 Regression Estimators Of Causal Effects Part Iii Estimating Causal Effects When Simple Conditioning Is Ineffective 6 Identification In The Absence Of A Complete Model Of Causal Exposure 7 Natural Experiments And Instrumental Variables 8 Mechanisms And Causal Explanation 9 Repeated Observations And The Estimation Of Causal Effects Part Iv Conclusions 10 Counterfactual Causality And Future Empirical Research In The Social Sciences

Author : Stephen L. Morgan
ISBN : 0511568592
Genre : Causation
File Size : 71.60 MB
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Did mandatory busing programs in the 1970s increase the school achievement of disadvantaged minority youth? Does obtaining a college degree increase an individual's labor market earnings? Did the use of the butterfly ballot in some Florida counties in the 2000 presidential election cost Al Gore votes? If so, was the number of miscast votes sufficiently large to have altered the election outcome? At their core, these types of questions are simple cause-and-effect questions. Simple cause-and-effect questions are the motivation for much empirical work in the social sciences. This book presents a model and set of methods for causal effect estimation that social scientists can use to address causal questions such as these. The essential features of the counterfactual model of causality for observational data analysis are presented with examples from sociology, political science, and economics.
Category: Causation

Dissecting The Social

Author : Peter Hedstrom
ISBN : 1139447335
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33.14 MB
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Over the past few decades serious reservations have been expressed about the explanatory power of sociological theory and research. In this important book, leading social theorist Peter Hedström outlines the foundations of an analytically oriented sociology that seeks to address this criticism. Building on his earlier influential contributions to contemporary debates, Professor Hedström argues for a systematic development of sociological theory so that it has the explanatory power and precision to inform sociological research and understanding. He discusses various mechanisms of action and interaction and shows how strong links can be forged between the micro and the macro, and between theory and empirical research. Combining approaches to theory and methodology and using extensive examples to illustrate how they might be applied, this clear, concise and original book will appeal to a broad range of social scientists.
Category: Social Science

Causal Inference For Statistics Social And Biomedical Sciences

Author : Guido W. Imbens
ISBN : 9781316094396
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 63.96 MB
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Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.
Category: Mathematics

A Life Course Approach To Healthy Ageing

Author : Diana Kuh
ISBN : 9780191008184
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.30 MB
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Healthy ageing has long been a neglected area of epidemiological research as the traditional focus has been on specific chronic diseases of older life. There is a growing consensus from scientists, research funders and policy makers that ageing itself needs to be studied from an interdisciplinary and life course perspective, to inform strategies for reducing the societal and individual costs of an ageing population. A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a synthesis of life course perspectives in epidemiology and interdisciplinary perspectives in ageing research. It brings together expert investigators of maturing birth cohort and ageing studies, cross-cutting methodologists, and authorities in ageing research and knowledge transfer from across the world in one wide-ranging volume. Contributors discuss how aspects of healthy ageing are conceptualised, defined and measured; relate to each other; change across life; and are influenced by biological, psychological and social factors operating from early life onwards. They identify research gaps, and suggest how evidence from observational studies can be strengthened through improved study design and longitudinal analysis, thereby increasing the research contribution to practice or policy change. The book considers how we might delay or slow down the progressive, generalised impairment of function that occurs at the individual, body system and cellular levels, as people grow older. It also considers the determinants of wellbeing in older people, including personal fulfilment, positive emotions and social relationships. Broad in scope, discussing topics from genetics to psychological and social wellbeing, A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a key resource for epidemiologists, social scientists, clinicians, public health physicians, policy makers and practitioners with a research interest in healthy ageing.
Category: Medical

Interrupted Time Series Analysis

Author : David McDowall
ISBN : 0803914938
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 49.50 MB
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Describes ARIMA or Box Tiao models, widely used in the analysis of interupted time series quasi-experiments, assuming no statistical background beyond simple correlation. The principles and concepts of ARIMA time series analyses are developed and applied where a discrete intervention has impacted a social system. '...this is the kind of exposition I wished I had had some ten years ago when venturing into the world of autoregressive, moving-average (ARIMA) models of time-series analysis...This monograph nicely lays out a method for assessing the impact of a discrete policy or event of some importance on behavior which can be continuously observed...If widely used, as I hope, it will save a generation of social scientists fro
Category: Social Science

Seven Rules For Social Research

Author : Glenn Firebaugh
ISBN : 0691135673
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66.33 MB
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Seven Rules for Social Research teaches social scientists how to get the most out of their technical skills and tools, providing a resource that fully describes the strategies and concepts no researcher or student of human behavior can do without. Glenn Firebaugh provides indispensable practical guidance for anyone doing research in the social and health sciences today, whether they are undergraduate or graduate students embarking on their first major research projects or seasoned professionals seeking to incorporate new methods into their research. The rules are the basis for discussions of a broad range of issues, from choosing a research question to inferring causal relationships, and are illustrated with applications and case studies from sociology, economics, political science, and related fields. Though geared toward quantitative methods, the rules also work for qualitative research. Seven Rules for Social Research is ideal for students and researchers who want to take their technical skills to new levels of precision and insight, and for instructors who want a textbook for a second methods course. The Seven Rules There should be the possibility of surprise in social research. Look for differences that make a difference, and report them. Build reality checks into your research. Replicate where possible. Compare like with like. Use panel data to study individual change and repeated cross-section data to study social change. Let method be the servant, not the master.
Category: Social Science

Handbook Of Statistical Modeling For The Social And Behavioral Sciences

Author : G. Arminger
ISBN : 030644805X
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 38.82 MB
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Contributors thoroughly survey the most important statistical models used in empirical reserch in the social and behavioral sciences. Following a common format, each chapter introduces a model, illustrates the types of problems and data for which the model is best used, provides numerous examples that draw upon familiar models or procedures, and includes material on software that can be used to estimate the models studied. This handbook will aid researchers, methodologists, graduate students, and statisticians to understand and resolve common modeling problems.
Category: Mathematics

Time Matters

Author : Andrew Abbott
ISBN : 0226001032
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 21.11 MB
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What do variables really tell us? When exactly do inventions occur? Why do we always miss turning points as they transpire? When does what doesn't happen mean as much, if not more, than what does? Andrew Abbott considers these fascinating questions in Time Matters, a diverse series of essays that constitutes the most extensive analysis of temporality in social science today. Ranging from abstract theoretical reflection to pointed methodological critique, Abbott demonstrates the inevitably theoretical character of any methodology. Time Matters focuses particularly on questions of time, events, and causality. Abbott grounds each essay in straightforward examinations of actual social scientific analyses. Throughout, he demonstrates the crucial assumptions we make about causes and events, about actors and interaction and about time and meaning every time we employ methods of social analysis, whether in academic disciplines, market research, public opinion polling, or even evaluation research. Turning current assumptions on their heads, Abbott not only outlines the theoretical orthodoxies of empirical social science, he sketches new alternatives, laying down foundations for a new body of social theory.
Category: Political Science