COUNTERFACTUALS AND CAUSAL INFERENCE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH

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Counterfactuals And Causal Inference

Author : Stephen L. Morgan
ISBN : 9781107065079
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30.85 MB
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This new edition aims to convince social scientists to take a counterfactual approach to the core questions of their fields.
Category: Mathematics

Handbook Of Causal Analysis For Social Research

Author : Stephen L. Morgan
ISBN : 9789400760943
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47.45 MB
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What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.
Category: Social Science

Matched Sampling For Causal Effects

Author : Donald B. Rubin
ISBN : 9781139458504
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 60.5 MB
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Matched sampling is often used to help assess the causal effect of some exposure or intervention, typically when randomized experiments are not available or cannot be conducted. This book presents a selection of Donald B. Rubin's research articles on matched sampling, from the early 1970s, when the author was one of the major researchers involved in establishing the field, to recent contributions to this now extremely active area. The articles include fundamental theoretical studies that have become classics, important extensions, and real applications that range from breast cancer treatments to tobacco litigation to studies of criminal tendencies. They are organized into seven parts, each with an introduction by the author that provides historical and personal context and discusses the relevance of the work today. A concluding essay offers advice to investigators designing observational studies. The book provides an accessible introduction to the study of matched sampling and will be an indispensable reference for students and researchers.
Category: Mathematics

Causal Inference In Statistics

Author : Judea Pearl
ISBN : 9781119186861
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 79.47 MB
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Many of the concepts and terminology surrounding modern causal inference can be quite intimidating to the novice. Judea Pearl presents a book ideal for beginners in statistics, providing a comprehensive introduction to the field of causality. Examples from classical statistics are presented throughout to demonstrate the need for causality in resolving decision-making dilemmas posed by data. Causal methods are also compared to traditional statistical methods, whilst questions are provided at the end of each section to aid student learning.
Category: Mathematics

Statistical Models And Causal Inference

Author : David A. Freedman
ISBN : 9780521195003
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 29.53 MB
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David A. Freedman presents a definitive synthesis of his approach to statistical modeling and causal inference in the social sciences.
Category: Mathematics

Design Of Observational Studies

Author : Paul R. Rosenbaum
ISBN : 9781441912138
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 21.76 MB
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An observational study is an empiric investigation of effects caused by treatments when randomized experimentation is unethical or infeasible. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people, including medicine, economics, epidemiology, education, psychology, political science and sociology. The quality and strength of evidence provided by an observational study is determined largely by its design. Design of Observational Studies is both an introduction to statistical inference in observational studies and a detailed discussion of the principles that guide the design of observational studies. Design of Observational Studies is divided into four parts. Chapters 2, 3, and 5 of Part I cover concisely, in about one hundred pages, many of the ideas discussed in Rosenbaum’s Observational Studies (also published by Springer) but in a less technical fashion. Part II discusses the practical aspects of using propensity scores and other tools to create a matched comparison that balances many covariates. Part II includes a chapter on matching in R. In Part III, the concept of design sensitivity is used to appraise the relative ability of competing designs to distinguish treatment effects from biases due to unmeasured covariates. Part IV discusses planning the analysis of an observational study, with particular reference to Sir Ronald Fisher’s striking advice for observational studies, "make your theories elaborate." The second edition of his book, Observational Studies, was published by Springer in 2002.
Category: Mathematics

Causal Inference For Statistics Social And Biomedical Sciences

Author : Guido W. Imbens
ISBN : 9781316094396
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66.56 MB
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Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.
Category: Mathematics

Natural Experiments In The Social Sciences

Author : Thad Dunning
ISBN : 9781107017665
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 34.22 MB
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The first comprehensive guide to natural experiments, providing an ideal introduction for scholars and students.
Category: Business & Economics

Causality

Author : Judea Pearl
ISBN : 9781139643986
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.75 MB
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Written by one of the preeminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, economics, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Judea Pearl presents and unifies the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual, and structural approaches to causation and devises simple mathematical tools for studying the relationships between causal connections and statistical associations. Cited in more than 2,100 scientific publications, it continues to liberate scientists from the traditional molds of statistical thinking. In this revised edition, Judea Pearl elucidates thorny issues, answers readers' questions, and offers a panoramic view of recent advances in this field of research. Causality will be of interest to students and professionals in a wide variety of fields. Dr Judea Pearl has received the 2011 Rumelhart Prize for his leading research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and systems from The Cognitive Science Society.
Category: Science

Computational Social Science

Author : R. Michael Alvarez
ISBN : 9781316531280
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 54.9 MB
Format : PDF
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Quantitative research in social science research is changing rapidly. Researchers have vast and complex arrays of data with which to work: we have incredible tools to sift through the data and recognize patterns in that data; there are now many sophisticated models that we can use to make sense of those patterns; and we have extremely powerful computational systems that help us accomplish these tasks quickly. This book focuses on some of the extraordinary work being conducted in computational social science - in academia, government, and the private sector - while highlighting current trends, challenges, and new directions. Thus, Computational Social Science showcases the innovative methodological tools being developed and applied by leading researchers in this new field. The book shows how academics and the private sector are using many of these tools to solve problems in social science and public policy.
Category: Political Science