CORPORATE OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW OXFORD MONOGRAPHS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

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Corporate Obligations Under International Law

Author : Markos Karavias
ISBN : 9780199674381
Genre : Law
File Size : 90.87 MB
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The international legal status of corporations is a contentious issue, as they do not easily fit within a system traditionally designed around states. This book assesses the ways in which corporations are bound by international human rights and environmental law, and the form their obligations take.
Category: Law

Complicity In International Law

Author : Miles Jackson
ISBN : 9780191056758
Genre : Law
File Size : 64.81 MB
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This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.
Category: Law

Jurisdiction In International Law

Author : Cedric Ryngaert
ISBN : 9780199688517
Genre : Law
File Size : 26.55 MB
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This fully updated second edition of Jurisdiction in International Law examines the international law of jurisdiction, focusing on the areas of law where jurisdiction is most contentious: criminal, antitrust, securities, discovery, and international humanitarian and human rights law. Since F.A. Mann's work in the 1980s, no analytical overview has been attempted of this crucial topic in international law: prescribing the admissible geographical reach of a State's laws. This new edition includes new material on personal jurisdiction in the U.S., extraterritorial applications of human rights treaties, discussions on cyberspace, the Morrison case. Jurisdiction in International Law has been updated covering developments in sanction and tax laws, and includes further exploration on transnational tort litigation and universal civil jurisdiction. The need for such an overview has grown more pressing in recent years as the traditional framework of the law of jurisdiction, grounded in the principles of sovereignty and territoriality, has been undermined by piecemeal developments. Antitrust jurisdiction is heading in new directions, influenced by law and economics approaches; new EC rules are reshaping jurisdiction in securities law; the U.S. is arguably overreaching in the field of corporate governance law; and the universality principle has gained ground in European criminal law and U.S. tort law. Such developments have given rise to conflicts over competency that struggle to be resolved within traditional jurisdiction theory. This study proposes an innovative approach that departs from the classical solutions and advocates a general principle of international subsidiary jurisdiction. Under the new proposed rule, States would be entitled, and at times even obliged, to exercise subsidiary jurisdiction over internationally relevant situations in the interest of the international community if the State having primary jurisdiction fails to assume its responsibility.
Category: Law

Economic Social And Cultural Rights In Armed Conflict

Author : Gilles Giacca
ISBN : 9780191026911
Genre : Law
File Size : 40.10 MB
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This book addresses the international legal obligation to protect economic, social, and cultural human rights in times of armed conflict and other situations of armed violence. These rights provide guarantees to individuals of their fundamental rights to work, to an adequate standard of living (food, water, housing), to education, and to health. Armed violence can take many forms, from civil unrest or protest and other forms of internal disturbances and tensions to higher levels of violence that may amount to armed conflict, whether of an international or of a non-international character. However, in all such cases the protection of ESC rights is sorely challenged. Situations of actual or potential violence present a number of challenges to the application and implementation of human rights law in general and socio-economic rights obligations more specifically. This book sets out the legal framework, defining what constitutes a minimum universal standard of human rights protection applicable in all circumstances. It assesses the concept and content of ESC rights' obligations, and evaluates how far they can be legally applicable in various scenarios of armed violence. By looking at the specific human rights treaty provisions, it discusses how far ESC rights obligations can be affected by practical and legal challenges to their implementation. The book addresses the key issues facing the protection of such rights in times of armed conflict: the legal conditions to limit ESC rights on security grounds, including the use of force; the extraterritorial applicability of international human rights treaties setting out ESC rights; the relationship between human rights law and international humanitarian law; and the obligations of non-state actors under human rights law and with particular relevance to the protection of ESC rights. The book assesses the nature of these potential challenges to the protection of ESC rights, and offers solutions to reinforce their continued application.
Category: Law

The Decolonization Of International Law

Author : Matthew Craven
ISBN : 9780199577880
Genre : Law
File Size : 26.97 MB
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Against the backdrop of decolonization and the territorial adjustments of the 1990s, the issue of state succession continues to be a vital and complex focal point for public international law. This book offers a pragmatic re-assessment of the foundations of the law of succession, assessing the attempts and failures to achieve a codified body of law
Category: Law

Treaties On Transit Of Energy Via Pipelines And Countermeasures

Author : Danae Azaria
ISBN : 9780191026867
Genre : Law
File Size : 70.14 MB
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This monograph examines the relationship between treaties providing for uninterrupted energy transit and countermeasures under the law of international responsibility. It analyses the obligations governing energy transit through pipelines in multilateral and bilateral treaties, looking at the WTO Agreement, the Energy Charter Treaty, and sixteen bespoke pipeline treaties. It argues that a number of transit obligations under these treaties are indivisible, reflecting the collective interests of states parties. The analysis is placed in the historical and normative landscape of freedom of transit in international law. After setting out the content and scope of obligations concerning transit of energy, it distinguishes countermeasures from treaty law responses, and examines the dispute settlement and compliance supervision provisions in these treaties. Building on these findings, the work discusses the availability and lawfulness of countermeasures as, on the one hand, a means of implementing the transit states responsibility for interruptions of energy transit via pipelines; and, on the other hand, circumstances that preclude the wrongfulness of the transit states interruptions of transit.
Category: Law

Targeted Killing In International Law

Author : Nils Melzer
ISBN : 9780199533169
Genre : Law
File Size : 76.16 MB
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A comprehensive analysis into the lawfulness of state-sponsored targeted killings under international human rights and humanitarian law, this book examines treaties, custom and general principles of law to determine the normative paradigms which govern the intentional use of lethal force against selected individuals in law enforcement and the conduct of hostilities. Through an exhaustive analysis of recent state practice and jurisprudence, the book establishes when targeted killing may be considered lawful, and what legal restraints are imposed on the practice in times of war and peace.
Category: Law

Judicial Remedies In International Law

Author : Christine D. Gray
ISBN : 0198254326
Genre : History
File Size : 32.88 MB
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The question of the consequences of breaches of international law is only now beginning to attract the attention it deserves. This book deals with one aspect of that wider question: it is the first comprehensive study of judicial remedies in international law.
Category: History

Extraterritorial Application Of Human Rights Treaties

Author : Marko Milanovic
ISBN : 9780191504808
Genre : Law
File Size : 83.33 MB
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Questions as to when a state owes obligations under a human rights treaty towards an individual located outside its territory are being brought more and more frequently before both international and domestic courts. Victims of aerial bombardment, inhabitants of territories under military occupation, deposed dictators, suspected terrorists detained in Guantanamo by the United States, and the family of a former KGB spy who was assassinated in London through the use of a radioactive toxin, allegedly at the orders or with the collusion of the Russian government - all of these people have claimed protection from human rights law against a state affecting their lives while acting outside its territory. These matters are extremely politically and legally sensitive, leading to much confusion, ambiguity and compromise in the existing case law. This study attempts to clear up some of this confusion, and expose its real roots. It examines the notion of state jurisdiction in human rights treaties, and places it within the framework of international law. It is not limited to an inquiry into the semantic, ordinary meaning of the jurisdiction clauses in human rights treaties, nor even to their construction into workable legal concepts and rules. Rather, the interpretation of these treaties cannot be complete without examining their object and purpose, and the various policy considerations which influence states in their behaviour, and courts in their decision-making. The book thus exposes the tension between universality and effectiveness, which is itself the cause of methodological and conceptual inconsistency in the case law. Finally, the work elaborates on the several possible models of the treaties' extraterritorial application. It offers not only a critical analysis of the existing case law, but explains the various options that are before courts and states in addressing these issues, as well as their policy implications.
Category: Law

International Law And The Proliferation Of Weapons Of Mass Destruction

Author : Daniel Joyner
ISBN : 9780199204908
Genre : Law
File Size : 75.41 MB
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This text analyses the international law and international organisations that have been constructed to regulate the worldwide proliferation of weapons technologies, particularly those that have been classified as weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
Category: Law