CONTACT IN THE 16TH CENTURY NETWORKS AMONG FISHERS FORAGERS AND FARMERS MERCURY ARCHAEOLOGY PAPER

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Contact In The 16th Century

Author : Brad Loewen
ISBN : 9780776623610
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 52.68 MB
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From Labrador to Lake Ontario, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to French Acadia, and Huronia-Wendaki to Tadoussac, and from one chapter to the next, this scholarly collection of archaeological findings focuses on 16th century European goods found in Native contexts and within greater networks, forming a conceptual interplay of place and mobility. The four initial chapters are set around the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where Euro-Native contact was direct and the historical record is strongest. Contact networks radiated northward into Inuit settings where European iron nails, roofing tile fragments and ceramics are found. Glass beads are scarce on Inuit sites as well as on Basque sites on the Gulf’s north shore, but they are numerous in French Acadia. Ceramics on northern Basque sites are mostly from Spain. An historical review discusses the partnership between Spanish Basques and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians c.1540-1580. The four chapters set in the Saint Lawrence valley show Tadoussac as a fork in inland networks. Saint Lawrence Iroquoians obtained glass beads around Tadoussac before 1580. Algonquin from Lac Saint-Jean began trading at Tadoussac after that. They plied a northern route that linked to Huronia-Wendaki via the Ottawa Valley and the Frontenac Uplands. Finally, four chapters set around Lake Ontario focus on contact between this region and the Saint Lawrence valley. Huron-Wendat sites around the Kawartha Lakes show an influx of Saint Lawrence trade in the 16th century, followed by an immigration wave about 1580. Huron-Wendat sites near Toronto show an unabated inflow of Native materials from the Saint Lawrence valley; however, neutral sites west of Lake Ontario show Native and European materials arriving from the south. A review of glass bead evidence presented by various authors shows trends that cut across chapters and bring new impetus to the study of beads to discover 16th-century networks among French and Basque fishers, Inuit and Algonquian foragers and Iroquoian farmers. With contributions from Saraí Barreiro, Meghan Burchell, Claude Chapdelaine, Martin S. Cooper, Amanda Crompton, Vincent Delmas, Sergio Escribano-Ruiz, William Fox, Sarah Grant, François Guindon, Erik Langevin, Brad Loewen, Jean-François Moreau, Jean-Luc Pilon, Michel Plourde, Peter Ramsden, Lisa Rankin and Ronald F. Williamson.
Category: Social Science

Subsistence And Culture In The Western Canadian Arctic

Author : Matthew W. Betts
ISBN : UIUC:30112085398466
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55.4 MB
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The Siglit, or Mackenzie Inuit, the ancestors of the modern Inuvialuit, were, at the time of Euroamerican contact, the most populous and complex Inuit society in the Canadian Arctic. Through innovative analysis of animal bones recovered from their ancient archaeological sites, this comprehensive study documents the complex relationships between the Mackenzie Inuit and their food animals, and tracks these connections over some 800 years, from their earliest occupations to the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century.Methodological in focus, this study examines the way in which archaeologists integrate animal remains into their analyses and proposes a systematic methodology for evaluating faunal data against other archaeological information. This volume chronicles the relationship between developing Siglit economic strategies and shifts in technology, settlement strategies, demography, and climate, exposing in the process the primary link between Siglit culture and their subsistence practices.Matthew Betts is Curator of Atlantic Provinces Archaeology at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. He received his PhD from the University of Toronto and has published on a broad range of topics including dating methods, historical archaeology, archaeological method and theory, and hunter-gatherer subsistence. His current research focuses on maritime hunter-gatherers and their complex economic and social relationships with the animals they exploit
Category: Social Science

Tu Sais Mon Vieux Jean Pierre

Author : John Willis
ISBN : 9780776624587
Genre : History
File Size : 75.57 MB
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Tu sais, mon vieux Jean-Pierre is inspired by the work of archaeologist Jean-Pierre Chrestien (1949–2008), who worked hand-in-glove with a generation of researchers in helping to unearth unexpected and always interesting aspects of New France. Contributions focus first upon the door to New France in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and Acadia. A second set of essays move further up the St. Lawrence and into the heartland of the continent. The final section examines aspects of Canadian culture: popular art, religion and communication. The essays share a curiosity for material culture, a careful regard for detail and nuance that forms the grain of New France studies, and sensitivity to the overall context that is part and parcel of how history proceeds on the local or regional scale. Happily we can now dispense with old-fashioned and facile generalizations about the allegedly absent bourgeoisie, the purportedly deficient commercial ethic of the habitants and the so-called underlying military character of the colony and get down the business of understanding real people and their possessions in context.
Category: History

This Fleeting World

Author : David Christian
ISBN : 9781933782041
Genre : History
File Size : 57.3 MB
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Presents an overview of the history of the human race from its earliest beginnings as foragers to our current state as modern beings.
Category: History

Process And Meaning In Spatial Archaeology

Author : Eric Jones
ISBN : 9781607325109
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 29.44 MB
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Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology examines Northern Iroquoian archaeology through various lenses at multiple spatial levels, including individual households, village constructions, relationships between villages in a local region, and relationships between various Iroquoian nations and their territorial homelands. The volume includes scholars and scholarship from both sides of the US-Canadian border, presenting a contextualized analysis of settlement and landscape for a broad range of past Northern Iroquoian societies. The research in this volume represents a new wave of spatial research—exploring beyond settlement patterning to the process and the meaning behind spatial arrangement of past communities and people—and describes new approaches being used for better understanding of past Northern Iroquoian societies. Addressing topics ranging from household task-scapes and gender relations to bioarchaeology and social network analysis, Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology demonstrates the vitality of current archaeological research into ancestral Northern Iroquoian societies and its growing contribution to wider debates in North American archaeology. This cutting-edge research will be of interest to archaeologists globally, as well as academics and graduate students studying Northern Iroquoian societies and cultures, geography, and spatial analysis. Contributors: Kathleen M. S. Allen, Jennifer A. Birch, William Engelbrecht, Crystal Forrest, John P. Hart, Sandra Katz, Robert H. Pihl, Aleksandra Pradzynski, Erin C. Rodriguez, Dean R. Snow, Ronald F. Williamson, Rob Wojtowicz
Category: Social Science

Origins And Revolutions

Author : Clive Gamble
ISBN : 9781139462495
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65.23 MB
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In this study Clive Gamble presents and questions two of the most famous descriptions of change in prehistory. The first is the 'human revolution', when evidence for art, music, religion and language first appears. The second is the economic and social revolution of the Neolithic period. Gamble identifies the historical agendas behind 'origins research' and presents a bold alternative to these established frameworks, relating the study of change to the material basis of human identity. He examines, through artefact proxies, how changing identities can be understood using embodied material metaphors and in two major case-studies charts the prehistory of innovations, asking, did agriculture really change the social world? This is an important and challenging book that will be essential reading for every student and scholar of prehistory.
Category: Social Science

Bad Year Economics

Author : Paul Halstead
ISBN : 052161192X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 60.8 MB
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Explores the role of risk and uncertainty in human economics within an interdisciplinary an cross-cultural framework.
Category: Business & Economics

Observations And Predictions Of Eclipse Times By Early Astronomers

Author : J.M. Steele
ISBN : 9789401595285
Genre : History
File Size : 66.7 MB
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Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.
Category: History

Entangled

Author : Ian Hodder
ISBN : 9780470672112
Genre : History
File Size : 56.15 MB
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A powerful and innovative argument that explores the complexity of the human relationship with material things, demonstrating how humans and societies are entrapped into the maintenance and sustaining of material worlds Argues that the interrelationship of humans and things is a defining characteristic of human history and culture Offers a nuanced argument that values the physical processes of things without succumbing to materialism Discusses historical and modern examples, using evolutionary theory to show how long-standing entanglements are irreversible and increase in scale and complexity over time Integrates aspects of a diverse array of contemporary theories in archaeology and related natural and biological sciences Provides a critical review of many of the key contemporary perspectives from materiality, material culture studies and phenomenology to evolutionary theory, behavioral archaeology, cognitive archaeology, human behavioral ecology, Actor Network Theory and complexity theory
Category: History

Five Centuries Of Farming

Author : Jan Bieleman
ISBN : 9789086861330
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21.10 MB
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Where the lower reaches of the rivers Rijn, Maas and Schelde have passed through the Northwest-European plain to finally flow out into the North Sea, a unique country of towns had come about during the Late Middle Ages. Since then, due to its natural and central location, this country, the Netherlands, has turned into a true crossroads of European trade connections between east and west, north and south. A highly urbanised country emerged and as the urban economies prospered they have had a great impact on the surrounding countryside. This in turn has affected the rural communities and has stimulated all kinds of agrarian activities. Highly productive agribusiness complexes have been the result. Today experts rank Dutch agriculture and horticulture as one of the most productive in the world. Milk production per cow and arable farming and horticulture, productivity per man-hour is amongst the highest known. This book is meant to give an overview of the historical processes of five centuries of farming and it makes clear that the old farming society was only seemingly static. This account of Dutch agricultural history demonstrates how Dutch farmers and horticulturist have always been keen on resetting their aims when the ever changing economic environment induced them to do so. With full colour illustrations.
Category: Social Science