CONQUERORS HOW PORTUGAL FORGED THE FIRST GLOBAL EMPIRE

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Conquerors

Author : Roger Crowley
ISBN : 9780812994018
Genre : History
File Size : 87.8 MB
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In Conquerors, New York Times bestselling author Roger Crowley gives us the epic story of the emergence of Portugal, a small, poor nation that enjoyed a century of maritime supremacy thanks to the daring and navigational skill of its explorers—a tactical advantage no other country could match. Portugal’s discovery of a sea route to India, campaign of imperial conquest over Muslim rulers, and domination of the spice trade would forever disrupt the Mediterranean and build the first global economy. Crowley relies on letters and eyewitness testimony to tell the story of tiny Portugal’s rapid and breathtaking rise to power. Conquerors reveals the Império Português in all of its splendor and ferocity, bringing to life the personalities of the enterprising and fanatical house of Aviz. Figures such as King Manuel “the Fortunate,” João II “the Perfect Prince,” marauding governor Afonso de Albuquerque, and explorer Vasco da Gama juggled their private ambitions and the public aims of the empire, often suffering astonishing losses in pursuit of a global fortune. Also central to the story of Portugal’s ascent was its drive to eradicate Islamic culture and establish a Christian empire in the Indian Ocean. Portuguese explorers pushed deep into the African continent in search of the mythical Christian king Prester John, and they ruthlessly besieged Indian port cities in their attempts to monopolize trade. The discovery of a route to India around the horn of Africa was not only a brilliant breakthrough in navigation but heralded a complete upset of the world order. For the next century, no European empire was more ambitious, no rulers more rapacious than the kings of Portugal. In the process they created the first long-range maritime empire and set in motion the forces of globalization that now shape our world. At Crowley’s hand, the complete story of the Portuguese empire and the human cost of its ambition can finally be told. Praise for Conquerors “Excellent . . . Crowley’s interpretations are nuanced and fair.”—The Christian Science Monitor “In a riveting narrative, Crowley chronicles Portugal's horrifically violent trajectory from ‘impoverished, marginal’ nation to European power, vying with Spain and Venice to dominate the spice trade.”—Kirkus Reviews (starred review) “Brings to life the Portuguese explorers . . . perfect for anyone who likes a high seas tale.”—Publishers Weekly “Readers of Crowley’s previous books will not be disappointed by this exciting tale of sea battles, land campaigns and shipwrecks. . . . Crowley makes a good case for reclaiming Portugal’s significance as forger of the first global empire.”—The Daily Telegraph “Crowley has shown a rare gift for combining compelling narrative with lightly worn academic thoroughness as well as for balancing the human with the geopolitical—qualities on display here. The story he has to tell may be a thrilling one but not every historian could tell it so thrillingly.”—Michael Prodger, Financial Times “A fast-moving and highly readable narrative . . . [Crowley’s] detailed reconstruction of events is based on a close reading of the works of the chroniclers, notably Barros and Correa, whose accounts were written in the tradition of the chronicles of chivalry.”—History Today
Category: History

Europa How Europe Shaped The Modern World

Author : Julio MacLennan
ISBN : 9781681778242
Genre : History
File Size : 65.25 MB
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An original and innovative examination of the continent—and its culture—that was the epicenter of the world for almost five centuries. European history is deeply embedded in the global civilization that has emerged in the 21st century. More than two thirds of today’s nations were once European colonies or protectorates. Europe’s legacy is evident in the trajectory of the United States and has influenced aspiring hegemonic powers like China. For centuries, Europe was the heart and soul of the West, and European powers enjoyed unprecedented global hegemony, not only by military and economic means, but also through their influence on politics and culture. The rise and fall of the European era of world supremacy constitutes one of the most epic histories of all time. ere were the extraordinary changes of the Renaissance and its aftermath, which marked the beginning of Europe's imposition of itself over other civilizations, but it was Columbus’s “discovery” of America that provided the key to its meteoric rise. Spain and Portugal would form the first global empires, closely followed by Holland, Britain, France and Russia. Following the exploits of navigators like Vasco da Gama and Captain Cook, the conquistador Hernan Cortes, missionary Henry Livingstone and others, Europa reveals the origins of Europe’s rapid expansion, which was then expanded upon further by millions of Europeans migrants, who spread their culture and values. MacLennan also reveals how statesmen, scientists, inventors, philosophers, writers, and revolutionaries were responsible for transforming the continent into a civilization that inspired universal attraction. Even into the twentieth century, after reaching the nadir of imperial decline and self- destruction, Europe has once again become a global trendsetter.
Category: History

How Transformative Innovations Shaped The Rise Of Nations

Author : Gerard Tellis
ISBN : 9781783087952
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 60.28 MB
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Over the last 2,000 years, critical innovations have transformed small regions into global powers. But these powers have faded when they did not embrace the next big innovation. Gerard J. Tellis and Stav Rosenzweig argue that openness to new ideas and people, empowerment of individuals and competition are key drivers in the development and adoption of transformative innovations. These innovations, in turn, fuel economic growth, national dominance and global leadership. In How Transformative Innovations Shaped the Rise of Nations, Tellis and Rosenzweig examine the transformative qualities of concrete in Rome; swift equine warfare in Mongolia; critical navigational innovations in the golden ages of Chinese, Venetian, Portuguese and Dutch empires; the patent system and steam engine in Britain; and mass production in the United States of America.
Category: Business & Economics

The Sea In World History Exploration Travel And Trade 2 Volumes

Author : Stephen K. Stein
ISBN : 9781440835513
Genre : History
File Size : 57.20 MB
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This two-volume set documents the essential role of the sea and maritime activity across history, from travel and food production to commerce and conquest. • Provides a broad survey of the importance of the oceans for all of human culture and civilization, including coverage of diverse cultures such as the Polynesians, Vikings, Minoans, and many others • Describes the voyages of the great explorers and places them in a broad multinational and multicultural perspective • Traces the human use of the sea over time, noting activities and historic events such as piracy, the slave trade, fishing, and whaling, as well as describing commerce in ancient and modern contexts
Category: History

Spain And Portugal

Author : Julia Ortiz Griffin
ISBN : 9780816074761
Genre : History
File Size : 57.82 MB
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Serves as a reference guide for any student interested in the modern history of Spain and Portugal. This work contains a concise narrative history, a chronology, and an A-to-Z encyclopedia covering significant people, places, events, and issues in Spanish and Portuguese history.
Category: History

Athanor

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105123808086
Genre : Semiotics
File Size : 76.52 MB
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Category: Semiotics

Empires Of The Weak

Author : Jason Sharman
ISBN : 9780691182797
Genre : History
File Size : 64.49 MB
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How the rise of the West was a temporary exception to the predominant world order What accounts for the rise of the state, the creation of the first global system, and the dominance of the West? The conventional answer asserts that superior technology, tactics, and institutions forged by Darwinian military competition gave Europeans a decisive advantage in war over other civilizations from 1500 onward. In contrast, Empires of the Weak argues that Europeans actually had no general military superiority in the early modern era. J. C. Sharman shows instead that European expansion from the late fifteenth to the late eighteenth centuries is better explained by deference to strong Asian and African polities, disease in the Americas, and maritime supremacy earned by default because local land-oriented polities were largely indifferent to war and trade at sea. Europeans were overawed by the mighty Eastern empires of the day, which pioneered key military innovations and were the greatest early modern conquerors. Against the view that the Europeans won for all time, Sharman contends that the imperialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was a relatively transient and anomalous development in world politics that concluded with Western losses in various insurgencies. If the twenty-first century is to be dominated by non-Western powers like China, this represents a return to the norm for the modern era. Bringing a revisionist perspective to the idea that Europe ruled the world due to military dominance, Empires of the Weak demonstrates that the rise of the West was an exception in the prevailing world order.
Category: History

The World

Author : Felipe Fernández-Armesto
ISBN : 0136061494
Genre : History
File Size : 60.74 MB
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The World interweaves two stories-of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually influential and yet mutually differentiating. Both stories have been going on for thousands of years. We do not know whether they will end in triumph or disaster. There is no prospect of covering all of world history in one book. Rather, the fabric of this book is woven from selected strands. Readers will see these at every turn, twisted together into yarn, stretched into stories. Human-focused historical ecology-the environmental theme-will drive readers back, again and again, to the same concepts: sustenance, shelter, disease, energy, technology, art. (The last is a vital category for historians, not only because it is part of our interface with the rest of the world, but also because it forms a record of how we see reality and of how the way we see it changes.) In the global story of human interactions-the cultural theme-we return constantly to the ways people make contact with each another: migration, trade, war, imperialism, pilgrimage, gift exchange, diplomacy, travel-and to their social frameworks: the economic and political arenas, the human groups and groupings, the states and civilizations, the sexes and generations, the classes and clusters of identity.
Category: History

Colonialism

Author : Melvin E. Page
ISBN : 9781576073353
Genre : Colonies
File Size : 46.74 MB
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Category: Colonies

The Western World

Author : Anthony Esler
ISBN : 0139466746
Genre : History
File Size : 25.60 MB
Format : PDF
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This comprehensive yet streamlined narrative history of the Western world brings the stories of ordinary people as well as famous leaders and events to life. This book offers exceptionally broad social and geographical coverage highlighting the global setting of Western history and emphasizing the effects of the West's repeated encounters with the non-Western world.
Category: History