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Cognitive Development And Working Memory

Author : Pierre Barrouillet
ISBN : 9781136930058
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 59.95 MB
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The intellectual development of human beings from birth to adulthood is a fascinating phenomenon. Understanding the constraints that limit children’s intelligence, as well as discovering methods to improve it, has always been a challenging undertaking for developmental psychologists. This book presents a unique attempt to address these issues by establishing a dialogue between neo-Piagetian theorists and researchers specialized in typical and atypical working memory development. The book integrates recent advances in studies of working memory development with theories proposed by the most prominent neo-Piagetian researchers who have emphasized the role of cognitive resources and working memory capacity in the development of thinking and reasoning. In the opening section, the main proponents of this tradition develop their theories of cognitive development in terms of available mental attention, processing efficiency and speed, inhibition and relational complexity. The second part of the book addresses the mechanisms that underpin the increase in working memory capacity and the respective roles of processing efficiency, storage capacity, and the use of reactivation processes of memory traces such as rehearsal. Finally, the central role played by working memory in atypical development and learning difficulties is examined. This book provides psychologists, students and researchers who are interested in child development with an integrated and up-to-date series of chapters written by prominent specialists in the areas of working memory, attention, and cognitive development.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory In Development

Author : Valérie Camos
ISBN : 9781317338352
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 28.44 MB
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Working memory is the system responsible for the temporary maintenance and processing of information involved in most cognitive activities, and its study is essential to the understanding of cognitive development. Working Memory in Development provides an integrative and thorough account of how working memory develops and how this development underpins childhood cognitive development. Tracing back theories of cognitive development from Piaget's most influential theory to neo-Piagetian approaches and theories pertaining to the information-processing tradition, Camos and Barrouillet show in Part I how the conception of a working memory became critical to understanding cognitive development. Part II provides an overview of the main approaches to working memory and reviews how working memory itself develops across infancy and childhood. In the final Part III, the authors explain their own theory, the Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model, and discuss how this accounts for the development of working memory as well providing an adequate frame to understanding the role of working memory in cognitive development. Working Memory in Development effectively addresses central and debated questions related to working memory and is essential reading for students and researchers in developmental, cognitive, and educational psychology.
Category: Psychology

Young Children S Cognitive Development

Author : Wolfgang Schneider
ISBN : 9781135614416
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 42.69 MB
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A critical part of early childhood development is the development of "theory of mind" (ToM), which is the ability to take the perspective of another person. The main purpose of this book is to discuss and integrate findings from prominent research areas in developmental psychology that are typically studied in isolation, but are clearly related. Two examples are whether executive functions represent a precursor of ToM or whether ToM understanding predicts the development of executive functions, and to what extent children's level of verbal ability and their working memory are important predictors of performance on both executive functioning and ToM tasks. The chapters in this book give a detailed account of the major outcomes of this research. First, the state of the art concerning current understanding of the relevant constructs (working memory, ToM, executive functioning) and their developmental changes is presented, followed by chapters that deal with interactions among the core concepts. Its main focus is on theoretically important relationships among determinants of young children's cognitive development--considered to be "hot" issues in contemporary developmental psychology. Based on presentations made at an international workshop, this book is divided into two parts. In the first part, five teams of researchers present theoretical analyses and overviews of empirical evidence regarding the core constructs of memory, executive functions, and ToM. The next part deals with the interplay among the core concepts outlined in Part I with developmental trends in the interaction.
Category: Psychology

The Development Of Working Memory

Author : Anik de Ribaupierre
ISBN : 0863779271
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 60.20 MB
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Working memory refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is being processed in a wide range of cognitive tasks. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Behavioral Development brings together research on the development of working memory that arises within two quite different approaches. The first is the neo-Piagetian perspective, which proposes that working memory limitations play an important role in the development of cognitive abilities. Accordingly, a major goal of neo-Piagetian research has been to develop techniques for measuring the capacity of working memory and to chart its development. Papers by Alp, de Ribaupierre and Bailleux, Morra, and Pascual-Leone, illustrate different facets of this approach. The second approach stems from the study of working memory and information-processing in mainstream cognitive psychology, which has suggested the need to distinguish relatively peripheral phonological and visuo-spatial subsystems from central resources. Since these subsystems are currently better understood than the central component of adult working memory, they have tended to be the focus of related developmental studies. This tendency is illustrated in papers on visuo-spatial working memory by Longoni and by Walker and Hitch, and on phonological working memory by Henry. A further significant strand of research in both approaches, is to investigate links between the development of working memory and various aspects of cognitive development; this type of work is illustrated in the papers by Blake on language acquisition and by Siegel on reading. Although the two approaches have tended to remain rather separate, their complementarity is fairly obvious: one has tended to emphasise central aspects of working memory, the other more peripheral aspects. This special issue is intended to promote the exchange of ideas, methods and data between researchers using the two approaches, and to identify areas of conflicts and agreements.
Category: Psychology

The Development Of Working Memory In Children

Author : Lucy Henry
ISBN : 9781446254196
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 78.51 MB
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Electronic Inspection Copy available for instructors here Using the highly influential working memory framework as a guide, this textbook provides a clear comparison of the memory development of typically developing children with that of atypical children. The emphasis on explaining methodology throughout the book gives students a real understanding about the way experiments are carried out and how to critically evaluate experimental research. The first half of the book describes the working memory model and goes on to consider working memory development in typically developing children. The second half of the book considers working memory development in several different types of atypical populations who have intellectual disabilities and/or developmental disorders. In addition, the book considers how having a developmental disorder and/or intellectual disabilities may have separate or combined effects on the development of working memory. The Development of Working Memory in Children is for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in development/child psychology, cognitive development and developmental disorders.
Category: Psychology

Cognitive Development In Late Childhood

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:68448481
Genre :
File Size : 68.3 MB
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An interactive framework of working memory and inhibitory control has been endorsed for examining cognitive development across the lifespan (Roberts & Pennington, 1996). According to this framework, the interaction between working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC) is necessary for adaptive daily functioning (Roberts & Pennington, 1996) and crucial for the development of executive functioning in childhood (Brocki & Bohlin, 2004). Empirical work from early developmental periods supports the interactive WMIC framework (e.g., Bell, 2001; Diamond, Kirkham, & Amso, 2002) and has identified sources of variability (brain electrical activity, temperament, and language) associated with WMIC functioning in infancy and early childhood (Wolfe & Bell, 2004). Although there is some evidence to suggest the interdependent nature of working memory and inhibitory control in late childhood and adulthood (Diamond, 2002; Luna, Garver, Urban, Lazar, & Sweeney, 2004), work in these later developmental periods has focused primarily on the independent processes of working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) and the interactive WMIC framework has not been directly investigated from late childhood onward. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to examine the interactive framework in a late childhood sample. The second goal of the study was to examine sources of variability in WMIC functioning in late childhood, with the intention of determining which sources of variability were associated with and contributed unique variance in explaining WMIC performance.

Working Memory And Education

Author :
ISBN : 9780080454863
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 68.46 MB
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Psychologists have been trying to understand the factors that underpin children's success and failure in different educational domains for many years. One psychological function that has been found to play an important role in educational achievement is 'working memory', the processes involved in the temporary maintenance and manipulation of information. This book provides the reader with an up-to-date review of the research that has identified how working memory relates to academic attainment in: reading, reading comprehension, arithmetic and writing, as well as looking at how children with difficulties relating to hearing impairment and attention deficits differ in terms of their working memory. Other chapters focus on how working memory is called upon in classroom settings, how working memory can be assessed, and approaches to remediation. The opening chapter of the book provides an account of working memory from the architect of the model that has dominated psychological theory for over two decades. This book is a valuable resource for psychologists, educationalists, and anyone seeking to understand more about the cognitive basis of educational achievement in children. * It brings together in one volume information that would normally be found in different sources * It brings together two disciplines that are highly relevant to one another (psychology and education) but not often linked directly * Provides psychologists with a perspective on educational practice * Provides educationalists with a well-established psychological framework for viewing educational phenomena * It provides information about up-to-date research techniques * It provides suggestions on how psychological theory can be translated into practice in educational settings
Category: Psychology

Working Memory In Perspective

Author : Jackie Andrade
ISBN : 9781134616459
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 88.26 MB
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The Baddeley and Hitch (1974) Working Memory model holds a central place in experimental psychology and continues to be extremely successful in guiding and stimulating research in applied and theoretical domains. Yet the model now faces challenges from conflicting data and competing theories. In this book, experienced researchers in the field address the question: Will the model survive these challenges? They explain why it is so successful, evaluate its weaknesses with respect to opposing data and theories and present their vision of the future of the model in their particular area of research. The book includes a discussion of the "Episodic Buffer" component which has recently been added to the working memory model. The result is a comprehensive and critical assessment of the working memory model and its contribution to current research in human cognition, cognitive development, neuroscience and computational modelling. Furthermore, this collection serves as a case study to illustrate the range of factors that determine the success or failure of a theory and as a forum for discussing what researchers want from scientific theories. The book begins with an accessible introduction to the model for those new to the field and explains the empirical methods used in working memory research. It concludes by highlighting areas of consensus and suggesting a programme of research to address issues of continuing controversy. Working Memory in Perspective will be a valuable resource to students and researchers alike in the fields of human memory, language, thought and cognitive development.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory And Severe Learning Difficulties Ple Memory

Author : Charles Hulme
ISBN : 9781317748434
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 64.30 MB
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"Working memory" is a term used to refer to the systems responsible for the temporary storage of information during the performance of cognitive tasks. The efficiency of working memory skills in children may place limitations on the learning and performance of educationally important skills such as reading, language comprehension and arithmetic. Originally published in 1992, this monograph considers the development of working memory skills in children with severe learning difficulties. These children have marked difficulties with a wide range of cognitive tasks. The studies reported show that they also experience profound difficulties in verbal working memory tasks. These memory problems are associated with a failure to rehearse information within an articulatory loop. Training the children to rehearse material is shown to help alleviate these problems. The implications of these studies for understanding normal memory development, and for models of the structure of working memory and its development are discussed. It is argued that the working memory deficits seen in people with severe learning difficulties may contribute to their difficulties on other cognitive tasks.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory And Academic Learning

Author : Milton J. Dehn
ISBN : 1118045165
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 77.96 MB
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Equipping school and child psychologists, and neuropsychologists with critical information on the role of working memory in learning and achievement, Working Memory and Academic Learning offers guidance on assessment tools, interventions, and current evidence-based best practices. Its specific, step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enables you to identify how working memory relates to academic attainment and how to apply this knowledge in professional practice.
Category: Psychology