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Climate Considerations In Building And Urban Design

Author : Baruch Givoni
ISBN : 0471291773
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 49.92 MB
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Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Baruch Givoni Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is the most comprehensive, up–to–date reference available on building and urban climatology. Written in clear, common–sense language by Baruch Givoni, the leading authority in the field, this book is a far–reaching look at a variety of climatic influences and their effects on individuals, buildings, and communities. Aimed at architecture and urban planning professionals and students alike, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers real–life solutions to climatological site planning and design issues, helping to settle disputes about site orientation, site organization, and the assembly of building materials. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is organized into three parts. The first, Building Climatology, analyzes human thermal comfort and the effect of architectural and structural design features including layout, window orientation, and shading, and ventilation conditions on the indoor climate. Then, Urban Climatology explores the ways in which the climate in densely built areas can differ from surrounding regional climactic conditions, for example, in temperature, wind speed, and humidity. This part further explores the effects of urban design elements, such as urban density and building height, on a city′s outdoor climate. Finally, Building and Urban Design Guidelines applies the body of available research on building climatology and the effects of physical planning on the urban and indoor climates to suggest design guidelines for different regions––for example, hot–dry and hot–humid climates. Filled with lists, tables, and graphs for easy cross–referencing, as well as hundreds of visuals, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers readers the ability to perform a quick check of a proposed scheme against authoritative criteria. Mr. Givoni′s latest volume is a unique, indispensable guide to the relationship between building design, urban planning, and climate.
Category: Architecture

Encyclopedia Of World Climatology

Author : John E. Oliver
ISBN : 9781402032646
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.97 MB
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Today, given the well-publicized impacts of events such as El Niño, there is an unequaled public awareness of how climate affects the quality of life and environment. Such awareness has created an increasing demand for accurate climatological information. This information is now available in one convenient, accessible source, the Encyclopedia of World Climatology. This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, supplies information on climates in major continental areas, and explains the intricacies of climatic processes. The level of presentation will meet the needs of specialists, university students, and educated laypersons. A successor to the 1986 Encyclopedia of Climatology, this compendium provides a clear explanation of current knowledge and research directions in modern climatology. This new encyclopedia emphasizes climatological developments that have evolved over the past twenty years. It offers more than 200 informative articles prepared by 150 experts on numerous subjects, ranging from standard areas of study to the latest research studies. The relationship between climatology and both physical and social science is fully explored, as is the significance of climate for our future well-being. The information is organized for speedy access. Entries are conveniently arranged in alphabetical order, thoroughly indexed, and cross-referenced. Every entry contains useful citations to additional source materials. The Editor John E. Oliver is Professor Emeritus at Indiana State University. He holds a B.Sc. from London University, and a MA and Ph.D from Columbia University. He taught at Columbia University and then at Indiana State where he was formerly Chair of the Geography-Geology Department, and Assoc iate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences. He has written many books and journal articles in Climatology, Applied Climatology and Physical Geography.
Category: Science

Stay Cool

Author : Holger Koch-Nielsen
ISBN : 9781134276103
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 47.18 MB
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In hot dry or warm humid climates, more than half of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning demands alone. Since the urbanization rate in developing countries is extreme, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy the future requirements of the built environment will be great, unless new, more cost-effective measures can be introduced. Stay Cool is an essential guide for planning and design using active design principles and passive means to satisfy human comfort requirements specifically in these climate zones, based on examples of traditional and modern constructions. The book demonstrates how a design strategy for urban environments and individual buildings, incorporating naturally occurring resources and specific energy-efficient technologies, can create a location, form and structure that promote significant energy-savings. Such strategies can be applied to low cost housing, or indeed to any other buildings, in order to improve comfort with passive means and low energy budgets. Following an outline of climatic issues, characteristics and thermal comfort requirements, the book details the available techniques and technologies that can be used to shape both built and external environments, the building envelope, material selections and natural ventilation and cooling methods to satisfy both human requirements and the need for energy efficiency. It also includes an active design checklist and summary of available design checking tools, a rehabilitation guide for existing urban, building and external environments, and solar charts. Planners, architects, engineers, technicians and building designers will find Stay Cool an inspirational guide and an essential reference when working with planning and design of the built environment in hot dry and warm humid climate zones. It will also be of benefit to students, academics and researchers with an interest in sustainable and energy-efficient architecture techniques and practice.
Category: Architecture

Green Roof Retrofit

Author : Sara J. Wilkinson
ISBN : 9781119055600
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 86.22 MB
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A deep understanding of the implications of green roof retrofit is required amongst students and practitioners to make the decisions and take the actions needed to mitigate climate changes. Green Roof Retrofit: building urban resilience illustrates the processes undertaken to develop this new knowledge and thereby embed a deeper level of understanding in readers.Illustrative case studies and exemplars are drawn from countries outside of the core researched areas to demonstrate the application of the knowledge more broadly. Examples are used from the Americas (North and South and Canada), Oceania, Asia and other European countries.The book describes the multiple criteria which inform decision making and how this provides a way forward for making better decisions about green roof retrofit in different countries and climates.
Category: Business & Economics

Intelligent Design Using Solar Climatic Vision

Author : Samimi, Mojtaba
ISBN : 9783798326750
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 64.81 MB
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Thanks to the availability of energy, materials and technologies, the level of comfort in buildings is increasing around the world. However, today we are also facing buildings and cities that are responsible for a high percentage of global energy consumption. Pollution, heat island effect, climate change and global warming are just a few of the challenges that the human race, as well as other living matter on earth, will have to deal with in future. Moreover, as time goes by, we may not necessarily live in healthier conditions with better life styles. Within a limited period, this global and complex situation will need thorough, integrated and local surgery. This book is designed to draw greater attention to the sun and how a solar-climatic vision can influence and improve architectural design and urban planning. It may not have been discovered yet how small our planet is and how big the effect of a simple decision can be, but it is nevertheless important to be reminded of the sun not only as a powerful and perpetual actor in our dynamic atmosphere but also as a basis for figuring out a variety of adaptive solutions that must be identified and followed. In addition to the changes made by architects, clients and builders as well as planners, municipalities and all other persons who make decisions on plans, the role of those who live inside buildings and cities, not as users, but as producers and maintainers, also bear a certain degree of responsibility. Therefore, the optimization of new constructions, the modification of existing buildings and urban fabric should be considered on a global scale in regard to the sun as well as our future needs. The aim should be to improve energy-efficiency, health, comfort and safety in all living spaces, whether indoors or outdoors. In this respect, the analysis of the current situation, forecasting future scenarios and the development of intelligent alternatives are fundamental steps. In terms of energy efficiency, daylight provision and internal comfort, the use of advanced building materials and technologies as well as simulation tools can improve the building envelope and its performance. However, it is important to understand when, where and how they should best be applied to achieve an intelligent form as well as a responsive layout with a high level of performance for other essential aspects, too (e.g. structure, view, operation). Although today many consider “solar architecture” the attaching of solar thermal collectors and PVs to building roofs and facades, this is only one of the complex tasks which should be integrated in the design. In fact, solar architecture incorporates all the complexities of architecture on different scales. Besides, it has to respond accurately to certain issues resulting from the currently low price of other energy sources in many locations. In addition to the reduction of payments, other valuable improvements associated with solar-climatic considerations in the design should be clarified and compared. During the design process, an optimization (i.e. re-arrangement, re-orientation, re-sizing) of different elements, namely solar surfaces (i.e. transparent/opaque surfaces, shading/reflecting devices, collectors), building volumes and trees, does not necessarily increase the construction costs but can help identify deficient or over-designed elements. Alongside improving the energy efficiency aspects of individual buildings, a solar-climatic vision in planning can lead to other qualities for the benefit of small and large-scale living spaces, whether indoors or outdoors. Around the world, we must be prepared for more shocking news and annual records if many continue to build buildings, whether cheap or expensive, with little attention to the sun. In neighborhoods on an urban scale, the insufficient analysis and inaccurate decisions regarding building volumes and orientation can affect the potentials and performance of both internal and external spaces in terms of energy production, energy demand, daylight, health, comfort and safety for long periods of time. This book includes a decade of SOLARCHVISION practices on how architectural design and urban planning can be adapted by the constant path and variable effects of the sun in each location. Sharing such a vision can help architects, urban planners and clients to make more accurate decisions concerning energy and climate-related matters. After presenting fundamental diagrams in different cities around the world (e.g. the sun paths, solar radiation and temperature models), the role of an intelligent design for the building skin is described and analyzed in terms of finding a good relation between outside and inside as well as the direct and indirect collection of solar energy on different building surfaces. This research can bring about new appearances and structures for the creation of smart buildings and responsive cities. Aufgrund der Verfügbarkeit von Energie, Materialien und Technologien erhöht sich der Wohnkomfort in Gebäuden weltweit. Jedoch stehen wir auch vor dem Problem, dass Gebäude und Städte für einen hohen Anteil des weltweiten Energieverbrauchs verantwortlich sind. Umweltverschmutzung, Wärmeinseleffekte, Klimawandel und globale Erwärmung sind nur einige der vielen Herausforderungen, mit denen die menschliche Rasse, ebenso sowie alles weitere Leben auf der Erde, in Zukunft umgehen muss. In absehbarer Zeit wird diese komplexe globale Situation gründliche, ganzheitliche und örtliche Eingriffe erfordern. Dieses Buch richtet die Aufmerksamkeit auf die Sonne und dadurch auch darauf, wie ein solarklimatisches Konzept die Architektur und Stadtplanung beeinflussen und verbessern kann. Es ist vielleicht noch nicht entdeckt worden wie klein unser Planet doch eigentlich ist und wie groß der Einfluss einer einfachen Entscheidung sein kann, aber vor allem ist es wichtig, dass die Sonne eine wichtige und immer währende Rolle in unserer dynamischen Atmosphäre spielt und dies als Grundlage bei der Suche von Lösungsansätzen erkannt und angewandt wird. Neben Architekten, Kunden und Bauherren sowie Planern, Kommunen und allen anderen Personen die Entscheidungen über die Planung treffen, spielen die in den Gebäuden und Städten Lebenden auch eine Rolle, nicht als Nutzer, sondern als Erzeuger und Betreuer, und auch sie haben eine gewisse Verantwortung. Daher sollten alle Optimierungen neuer Bauten, Modifikationen von Bestandsgebäuden und Stadtstrukturen auf globaler Ebene Bezug auf die Sonne und auf zukünftige Bedürfnisse nehmen. Das Ziel sollte es sein, die Energieeffizienz, Gesundheit, Komfort und Sicherheit in allen Lebensräumen, ob drinnen oder draußen, zu verbessern. In dieser Hinsicht sind die Analyse der aktuellen Situation, die Prognose zukünftiger Szenarien und die Entwicklung intelligenter Alternativen grundlegende Schritte. Der Einsatz von modernen Baustoffen und Technologien sowie Simulationswerkzeugen kann die Energieeffizienz und Leistungsfähigkeit eines Gebäudes verbessern. Es ist jedoch wichtig zu verstehen wann, wo und wie sie am besten in der architektonischen Gestaltung angewendet werden können, um ein ansprechendes Layout mit einer hohen Leistung für eine Vielzahl von architektonischen Aspekten zu erreichen und in Bezug auf Energieeffizienz, Tageslichtversorgung und internen Komfort ein optimales Ergebnis zu erzielen. Obwohl heute viele schon das Anbringen von Solar-Kollektoren und PV-Modulen auf Gebäudedächern und Fassaden als "Solararchitektur" betrachten, ist dies nur eine der komplexen Aufgaben in diesem Feld der Architektur. Tatsächlich beinhaltet die Solararchitektur die gesamte Komplexität der Architektur auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen. Außerdem hat sie sehr genau auf bestimmte Sachverhalte zu reagieren, welche aus den vielerorts aktuell geringen Energiekosten anderer Energiequellen resultieren. Neben der Reduzierung von Baukosten sollten andere wertvolle Verbesserungen, resultierend aus solar klimatischen Überlegungen, im Entwurf hervorgehoben und verglichen werden. In der Tat kann eine Optimierung verschiedener Elemente während des Design-Prozesses, wie z.B. Solarflächen, Baukörpern und Bäumen, nicht notwendigerweise die Baukosten steigern, jedoch dabei helfen unnütze oder überdimensionierte Elemente zu identifizieren. Neben der Verbesserung der Energieeffizienzaspekte einzelner Gebäude kann eine zuverlässige integrierte solarklimatische Planung zu weiteren Qualitäten der Lebensräume führen. Überall auf der Welt müssen wir uns auf mehr und mehr schockierende Nachrichten und jährliche Rekordwerte vorbereiten, wenn weiterhin viele Gebäude mit wenig Aufmerksamkeit auf die Sonne gebaut werden. In Stadtteilen auf urbaner Städteebene kann die unzureichende Analyse und unklare Entscheidungen über Baukörper und Orientierung die Potenziale und Leistung interner und externer Räume im Bezug auf Energieproduktion, Energiebedarf, Tageslicht, Gesundheit, Komfort und Sicherheit auf lange Zeit beeinflussen. Dieses Buch enthält ein Jahrzehnt SOLARCHVISION Praktiken darüber, wie die Architektur und Stadtplanung mit dem konstanten Weg und den variablen Auswirkungen der Sonne an jedem Standort angepasst werden kann. Das Teilen dieser Vision kann Architekten, Stadtplanern und Kunden helfen, zielgenauere Entscheidungen über energie- und klimarelevante Fragen zu treffen. Nach der Vorstellung grundlegender Diagramme zu verschiedenen Städten auf der ganzen Welt (z.B. die Sonnenwege, Sonneneinstrahlung und Temperaturmodelle), wird die Rolle eines intelligenten Designs für die Gebäudehülle beschrieben und analysiert im Hinblick auf die Suche nach einer guten Verbindung zwischen Außen und Innen, sowie die direkte und indirekte Nutzung von Sonnenenergie auf verschiedenen Gebäudeflächen. Diese Untersuchungen können neue Ansichten und Strukturen für die Erbauung intelligenter Gebäude und anpassungsfähiger Städte hervorbringen.
Category: Architecture

Urban Microclimate

Author : Evyatar Erell
ISBN : 9781136539428
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 56.11 MB
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The quality of life of millions of people living in cities could be improved if the form of the city were to evolve in a manner appropriate to its climatic context. Climatically responsive urban design is vital to any notion of sustainability: it enables individual buildings to make use of renewable energy sources for passive heating and cooling, it enhances pedestrian comfort and activity in outdoor spaces, and it may even encourage city dwellers to moderate their dependence on private vehicles. Urban Microclimate bridges the gap between climatology research and applied urban design. It provides architects and urban design professionals with an understanding of how the structure of the built environment at all scales affects microclimatic conditions in the space between buildings, and analyzes the interaction between microclimate and each of the elements of the urban landscape. In the first two sections of the book, the extensive body of work on this subject by climatologists and geographers is presented in the language of architecture and planning professionals. The third section follows each step in the design process, and in part four a critical analysis of selected case study projects provides a demonstration of the complexity of applied urban design. Practitioners will find in this book a useful guide to consult, as they address these key environmental issues in their own work.
Category: Architecture

Designing With Solar Power

Author : Deo Prasad
ISBN : 9781134032501
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 77.4 MB
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Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'. Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, but also investigate the ways in which photovoltaics can be integrated into the design and creation of buildings equipped for the demands of the 21st century. The potential for BiPV, in both buildings and other structures, is explored together with broader issues such as market deployment, and international marketing and government strategies. In addition, more than 20 contemporary international case studies describe in detail how building-integrated photovoltaics have been applied to new and existing buildings, and discuss the architectural and technical quality, and the success of various strategies. Packed with photographs and illustrations, this book is an invaluable companion for architects, builders, designers, engineers, students and all involved with the exciting possibilities of building-integrated photovoltaics.
Category: Architecture

Desert Development

Author : Yehuda Gradus
ISBN : 9789400953963
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.17 MB
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The fact that approximately one-third of the world's land mass is arid desert may be congenial for the camel and the cactus, but not for people. Nevertheless, well over half a billion people, or 15% of the world's population live in arid desert areas. If the world's population were distributed evenly over the land surface, we would expect to find about 30% of the population inhabiting arid desert areas. Does the fact that 'only' 15% of the world's population live in an arid desert environment reflect the harshness of the environment? Or is it a testimony to the adaptability and ingenuity of mankind? Do we view the glass as half-full? Or half-empty? The contributors to Desert Development: Man and Technology in Sparselands adopt the position that the cup is half-full and, in fact, could be filled much more. Indeed, many arid desert zones do thrive with life, and given appropriate technological develop ment, such areas could support even greater popUlations. While the dire Malthusian prediction that rapid world population growth exceeds the carrying capacity of existent resource systems has gained popularity (typified by the 1972 Club of Rome book, Limits to Growth), there is a growing body of serious work which rejects such pessimistic 'depletion' models, in favor of models which are mildly optimistic.
Category: Science

Eco City Planning

Author : Tai-Chee Wong
ISBN : 940070383X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 33.27 MB
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Eco-city planning is a key element of urban land use planning in perspective and of ongoing debate of environmental urban sustainable development with a spatial and practical dimension. The conceptual basis of ecological planning is that we can no longer afford to be merely human-centred in approach. Instead, the interdependency of human and non-human species has forced us to appreciate the ‘rights’ and ‘intrinsic values’ of non-human species in our pursuit for a sustainable ecosystem. This volume has as approach an emphasis on environmental planning policies whereby, for example, energy saving, anti-pollution measures, use of non-car modes, construction of green buildings, safeguarding of nature and natural habitats in urban areas, and use of more renewable resources are promotional norms. Their aims and leading outcome serve to protect the Earth from adverse effects of global warming and different sources of pollution threatening the quality of life of human societies.
Category: Political Science