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Chromatin Signaling And Diseases

Author : Olivier Binda
ISBN : 9780128026090
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.67 MB
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Chromatin Signaling and Diseases covers the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which govern everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging, such as cancer. This book helps researchers learn about or keep up with the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling. After reading this book, clinicians will be more capable of explaining the mechanisms of gene expression regulation to their patients to reassure them about new drug developments that target chromatin signaling mechanisms. For example, several epigenetic drugs that act on chromatin signaling factors are in clinical trials or even approved for usage in cancer treatments, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Other epigenetic drugs are in development to regulate various class of chromatin signaling factors. To keep up with this changing landscape, clinicians and doctors will need to stay familiar with genetic advances that translate to clinical practice, such as chromatin signaling. Although sequencing of the human genome was completed over a decade ago and its structure investigated for nearly half a century, molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression remain largely misunderstood. An emerging concept called chromatin signaling proposes that small protein domains recognize chemical modifications on the genome scaffolding histone proteins, facilitating the nucleation of enzymatic complexes at specific loci that then open up or shut down the access to genetic information, thereby regulating gene expression. The addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, as well as the proteins that specifically recognize these, is reviewed in Chromatin Signaling and Diseases. Finally, the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling is also explored. Explains molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which governs everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging Educates clinicians and researchers about chromatin signaling, a molecular mechanism that is changing our understanding of human pathology Explores the addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, the proteins that specifically recognize these, and the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling Helps researchers learn about the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling
Category: Science

Chromatin Regulation And Dynamics

Author : Anita Göndör
ISBN : 9780128034026
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.93 MB
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Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with the 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes. The final chapters discuss the many ways chromatin dynamics can synergize to fundamentally contribute to the development of complex diseases. Chromatin dynamics, which is strategically positioned at the gene-environment interface, is at the core of disease development. As such, Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics, part of the Translational Epigenetics series, facilitates the flow of information between research areas such as chromatin regulation, developmental biology, and epidemiology by focusing on recent findings of the fast-moving field of chromatin regulation. Presents and discusses novel principles of chromatin regulation and dynamics with a cross-disciplinary perspective Promotes crosstalk between basic sciences and their applications in medicine Provides a framework for future studies on complex diseases by integrating various aspects of chromatin biology with cellular metabolic states, with an emphasis on the dynamic nature of chromatin and stochastic principles Integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes
Category: Science

Introductory Review On Sirtuins In Biology Aging And Disease

Author : Leonard Guarente
ISBN : 9780128135006
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.69 MB
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Introductory Review on Sirtuins in Biology and Disease provides key insights for scientists and advanced students who need to understand sirtuins and the current research in this field. This book is ideal for pharmaceutical companies as they develop novel targets using sirtuins for metabolic diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative illnesses. Sirtuins are a diverse family of proteins, with several members in mammals. The functional diversity of sirtuins is rather broad, and they have been implicated in various central biological processes. Thus, they are also highly relevant in the context of various human diseases, from cancer to neurodegeneration. Covers both the general and specific aspects of sirtuin proteins and their role in biology, aging and disease Presents a top quality collection of leading experts who contribute on a wide range of sirtuin-related topics Ideal resource for pharmaceutical companies as they develop novel targets using sirtuins for metabolic diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative illnesses
Category: Science

Cellular Endocrinology In Health And Disease

Author : Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre
ISBN : 9780124167124
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71.4 MB
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Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease describes the underlying basis of endocrine function, providing an important tool to understand the fundamentals of endocrine diseases. Delivering a comprehensive review of the basic science of endocrinology, from cell biology to human disease, this work explores and dissects the function of a number of cellular systems. Among these are those whose function was not obvious until recently, including the endocrine functions of bone and the adipose tissue. Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. A methods section proves novel and useful approaches across research focus that will be attractive to medical students, residents, and specialists in the field of endocrinology, as well as to those interested in cellular regulation. Editors Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre and P. Michael Conn, experts in molecular and cellular aspects of endocrinology, deliver contributions carefully selected for relevance, impact, and clarity of expression from leading field experts. Covers systemic endocrine action at the cellular level in both health and disease Delivers information on the integration of cell identity and endocrinology Incorporates recent developments in endocrinology to provide an up-to-date reference to researchers
Category: Medical

Non Cml Myeloproliferative Diseases An Issue Of Hematology Oncology Clinics Of North America E Book

Author : Ross Levine
ISBN : 9781455747641
Genre : Medical
File Size : 58.98 MB
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Topics include: Clinical Predictors of Outcome in MPNs; Molecular pathogenesis of MPNs; Disordered signaling in MPNs; Role of TET2/ASXL1 in MPN Pathogenesis; Pathogenesis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis; Role of additional novel therapies in MPNs; Role of novel mutations in MPN pathogenesis and outcome; Role of JAK inhibitors in MPN treatment; Animal Models of MPNs; and Role of Germline Genetic Factors in MPN Pathogenesis.
Category: Medical

Role Of Stem Cells In Skeletal Muscle Development Regeneration Repair Aging And Disease

Author : Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
ISBN : 9782889198665
Genre :
File Size : 35.40 MB
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Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

Chromatin Deregulation In Cancer

Author : Scott A. Armstrong
ISBN : 1621821404
File Size : 50.69 MB
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The human genome is packaged into chromatin, which is composed of numerous proteins that help control gene expression, DNA replication and repair, and genome stability. In recent years, it has become clear that the deregulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in numerous cancers. Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine examines the chromatin components that are commonly mutated, what is understood about the mechanisms that lead to hematological malignancies and solid tumors, and prospects for the therapeutic modulation of chromatin. The contributors describe how histone proteins, histone-modifying enzymes, chromatin remodelers, transcriptional regulatory complexes, enhancer-associated factors, and signaling proteins are dysregulated in cancer pathogenesis. In addition, the roles of DNA methylation and noncoding RNAs are covered. The authors also discuss small molecules and other drugs that are currently under development or already used to treat cancer (e.g., HDAC inhibitors and DNA hypomethylating agents). This book is therefore essential reading for all cancer biologists, cell and molecular biologists, and pharmacologists interested in understanding cancer therapies.
Category: MEDICAL

Epigenetics Development And Disease

Author : Tapas Kumar Kundu
ISBN : 9789400745254
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64.98 MB
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Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.
Category: Medical

Genetics Of Bone Biology And Skeletal Disease

Author : Rajesh V. Thakker
ISBN : 9780128041987
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73.93 MB
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Genetics of Bone Biology and Skeletal Disease, Second Edition, is aimed at students of bone biology and genetics and includes general introductory chapters on bone biology and genetics. More specific disease orientated chapters comprehensively summarize the clinical, genetic, molecular, animal model, molecular pathology, diagnostic, counseling, and treatment aspects of each disorder. The book is organized into five sections that each emphasize a particular theme, general background to bone biology, general background to genetics and epigenetics, disorders of bone and joint, parathyroid and related disorders, and vitamin D and renal disorders. The first section is specifically devoted to providing an overview of bone biology and structure, joint and cartilage biology, principles of endocrine regulation of bone, and the role of neuronal regulation and energy homeostasis. The second section reviews the principles and progress of medical genetics and epigenetics related to bone disease, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic profiling, copy number variation, prospects of gene therapy, pharmacogenomics, genetic testing and counseling, as well as the generation and utilizing of mouse models. The third section details advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bone and joint diseases, both monogenic and polygenic, as well as skeletal dysplasias, and rarer bone disorders. The fourth section highlights the central role of the parathyroids in calcium and skeletal homeostasis by reviewing the molecular genetics of: hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyrodism, endocrine neoplasias, and disorders of the PTH and calcium-sensing receptors. The fifth section details molecular and cellular advances across associated renal disorders such as vitamin D and rickets. Identifies and analyzes the genetic basis of bone disorders in humans and demonstrates the utility of mouse models in furthering the knowledge of mechanisms and evaluation of treatments Demonstrates how the interactions between bone and joint biology, physiology, and genetics have greatly enhanced the understanding of normal bone function as well as the molecular pathogenesis of metabolic bone disorders Summarizes the clinical, genetic, molecular, animal model, molecular pathology, diagnostic, counseling, and treatment aspects of each disorder
Category: Medical

Chromatin And Disease

Author : Tapas K. Kundu
ISBN : 9781402054662
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.42 MB
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This book includes a collection of articles with the broad theme of disease connection to chromatin structure and function. It elaborates on the molecular pharmacology of the drugs targeting chromatin structure and its components. The book contains up-to-date information about the chromatin structure and chromatin related diseases and drug functions. This work is the first endeavor to present different aspects encompassing the above theme.
Category: Science