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Chemically Active

Author : Vicki Cobb
ISBN : 0397320795
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 74.48 MB
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Gives instructions for performing a variety of experiments, using easily available materials, that illustrate some basic principles of chemistry.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Generation Of Chemically Active Species By Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge In Supersonic Airflow

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1049845102
Genre :
File Size : 51.89 MB
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For reliable operation of the HRE the ignition of an air-fuel mixture should be fast so that the fuel is burnt within the engine channel. Chemical activation of the air-fuel mixture (production of chemically active radicals) is one of the ways to increase the rate of the ignition. Numerical simulations demonstrate that addition of 1% of atomic oxygen results in a notable reduction of time of methane burning in air. Radicals and other chemically active particles can be produced in air flow by maintainance of different electric discharges. In the paper, the processes of chemically active particles generation in a self-sustained discharge are numerically simulated. Our model includes an electron Boltzmann equation solver calculated in parallel with kinetic equations for excited molecular states, ion-molecule reactions and chemical reactions. The model takes into account oxygen molecule dissociation by a direct electron impact and by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen molecules, as well. Processes of negative ion formation and destruction are described in a much detail. In total, the model includes 32 components and 160 reactions where these components are involved. Calculations performed for the initial gas temperature 700 K and gas pressure 0.2 - 1 bar showed that it is possible to get atomic oxygen concentration on the order of 1% in the self-sustained glow discharge. The energy cost of atoms 0 production is 82 and 100 eViparticle for gas pressures 0.2 and 1 bar, respectively.

Survey Of Chemical Spill Countermeasures

Author : Minister of the Envi
ISBN : 1566703131
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.44 MB
Format : PDF
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Until now, information regarding chemical spill clean-up was available only through manufacturer's literature from an individual firm, or scattered in the traditional textbooks on remediation engineering and hazardous waste management. Survey of Chemical Spill Countermeasures provides a one-stop source of information on how to clean up spill sites in safe, acceptable ways. Because of the ever-growing need to maintain constant vigilance over hazardous chemicals and potential leaks and spills, this reference will become an important source for the practicing environmental engineer and field technician. Survey of Chemical Spill Countermeasures provides operators with useful information on how to clean up sites, including controlling leakage, containment of spills on land and water, and ways to safely transfer and store the contaminants. Additionally, the book includes up-to-date information on containment and treatment technologies, from dredging and vacuuming, to solid and vapor treatment systems.
Category: Science

Chemically Reacting Flow

Author : Robert J. Kee
ISBN : 9780471461302
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.84 MB
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Complex chemically reacting flow simulations are commonly employed to develop quantitative understanding and to optimize reaction conditions in systems such as combustion, catalysis, chemical vapor deposition, and other chemical processes. Although reaction conditions, geometries, and fluid flow can vary widely among the applications of chemically reacting flows, all applications share a need for accurate, detailed descriptions of the chemical kinetics occurring in the gas-phase or on reactive surfaces. Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory and Practice combines fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics and physical chemistry, assisting the student and practicing researcher in developing analytical and simulation skills that are useful and extendable for solving real-world engineering problems. The first several chapters introduce transport processes, primarily from a fluid-mechanics point of view, incorporating computational simulation from the outset. The middle section targets physical chemistry topics that are required to develop chemically reacting flow simulations, such as chemical thermodynamics, molecular transport, chemical rate theories, and reaction mechanisms. The final chapters deal with complex chemically reacting flow simulations, emphasizing combustion and materials processing. Among other features, Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory and Practice: -Advances a comprehensive approach to interweaving the fundamentals of chemical kinetics and fluid mechanics -Embraces computational simulation, equipping the reader with effective, practical tools for solving real-world problems -Emphasizes physical fundamentals, enabling the analyst to understand how reacting flow simulations achieve their results -Provides a valuable resource for scientists and engineers who use Chemkin or similar software Computer simulation of reactive systems is highly effective in the development, enhancement, and optimization of chemical processes. Chemically Reacting Flow helps prepare both students and professionals to take practical advantage of this powerful capability.
Category: Science