CHEMICAL ECOLOGY IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

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Chemical Ecology In Aquatic Systems

Author : Christer Brönmark
ISBN : 9780191625374
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.56 MB
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In recent years it has become increasingly clear that chemical interactions play a fundamental role in aquatic habitats and have far-reaching evolutionary and ecological consequences. A plethora of studies have shown that aquatic organisms from most taxa and functional groups respond to minute concentrations of chemical substances released by other organisms. However, our knowledge of this "chemical network" is still negligible. Chemical interactions can be divided into two larger sub-areas based on the function of the chemical substance. First, there are interactions where chemical substances are toxic to other organisms and are used as a defence against consumers (including both herbivores and predators) or a weapon against competitors (allelopathy). Second, chemical substances may be used as a source for information of the environment; for example: how can I find the optimal habitat, the best food, the nicest partner, and avoid being eaten? Aquatic organisms are able to detect and respond to extremely low concentrations of chemical cues to answer all these questions. The book aims at connecting these intriguing chemical interactions with traditional knowledge of organism interactions. Chemical Ecology of Aquatic Systems covers a wide range of studies, both plant and animal, from different geographic regions and habitats - pelagic as well as benthic. Most of the chemical interactions are similar in freshwater and marine habitats and this book therefore strives at integrating work on both systems.
Category: Science

Chemical Ecology

Author : Marcel Dicke
ISBN : 1402047924
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.19 MB
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Chemical ecology is the ecology of body odour. Every organism uses chemical information in intra- and inter-specific interactions. Animals emit chemicals to attract a mate or to prevent a competitor from mating with the partner they just mated with. Plants emit chemicals to recruit other organisms to take care of their sex life or to attract bodyguards to defend them against their enemies. Chemical cues mediate a whole gamut of interactions in plant and animal communities. Chemical cues are used to communicate, but can also be exploited in espionage or eavesdropping. To understand the ecology of chemical signalling in communities one needs to carry out manipulative experiments. Such experiments have been done throughout the last century. However, in recent years the degree of precision with which such experiments can be done has grown tremendously as a result of rapidly increasing knowledge at the molecular-genetic level. This opens exciting new avenues to chemical ecologists. The connection of molecular genetics to community ecology and ecosystem ecology provides novel tools to take up old questions that were often hard to answer. This book provides an overview of chemical ecology related to different ecosystems and an outlook at novel directions that can be taken in chemical ecology through a molecular-ecological or eco-genomic approach. The book addresses above- and belowground terrestrial systems as well as aquatic systems, and the organisms involved are micro- and macro-organisms, such as plants, arthropods and mammals. The scientific approach presented in this book is characteristic of modern biological research. The book will be useful for scientists and students interested in ecology in general as well as those working in the fields of molecular, chemical, behavioural, population or community ecology.
Category: Science

Chemical Biomarkers In Aquatic Ecosystems

Author : Thomas S. Bianchi
ISBN : 1400839106
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.96 MB
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This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources of organic matter identified in the sediment record, the book indicates that the application of these biomarkers for an understanding of aquatic ecosystems consists of a biogeochemical approach that has been quite successful but underused. This book offers a wide-ranging guide to the broad diversity of these chemical biomarkers, is the first to be structured around the compounds themselves, and examines them in a connected and comprehensive way. This timely book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking training in this area; researchers in biochemistry, organic geochemistry, and biogeochemistry; researchers working on aspects of organic cycling in aquatic ecosystems; and paleoceanographers, petroleum geologists, and ecologists. Provides a guide to the broad diversity of chemical biomarkers in aquatic environments The first textbook to be structured around the compounds themselves Describes the structure, biochemical synthesis, analysis, and reactivity of each class of biomarkers Offers a selection of relevant applications to aquatic systems, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, oceans, and paleoenvironments Demonstrates the utility of using organic molecules as tracers of processes occurring in aquatic ecosystems, both modern and ancient
Category: Science

Chemical Ecology Of Plants Allelopathy In Aquatic And Terrestrial Ecosystems

Author : Inderjit
ISBN : 9783034881098
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.94 MB
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Allelochemicals play a great role in managed and natural ecosystems. Apart from plant growth, allelochemicals also may influence nutrient dynamics, mycorrhizae, soil chemical characteristics, and microbial ecology. Synergistic action of various factors may better explain plant growth and distribution in natural systems. The book emphasizes the role of allelochemicals in shaping the structure of plant communities in a broader ecological perspective. The book addresses the following questions: (1) How do allelochemicals influence different components of the ecosystem in terms of shaping community structure? (2) Why is it difficult to demonstrate interference by allelochemicals (i.e., allelopathy) in a natural system in its entirety? Despite a large amount of existing literature on allelopathy, why are ecologists still skeptical about the existence of allelopathy in nature? (3) Why are there only scarce data on aquatic ecosystems? (4) What role do allelochemicals play in microbial ecology?.....
Category: Science

Chemical Kinetics And Process Dynamics In Aquatic Systems

Author : Patrick L. Brezonik
ISBN : 0873714318
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.63 MB
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Chemical Kinetics and Process Dynamics in Aquatic Systems is devoted to chemical reactions and biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. The book provides a thorough analysis of the principles, mathematics, and analytical tools used in chemical, microbial, and reactor kinetics. It also presents a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the kinetics of important chemical processes in aquatic environments. Aquatic photochemistry and correlation methods (e.g., LFERs and QSARs) to predict process rates are covered. Numerous examples are included, and each chapter has a detailed bibliography and problems sets. The book will be an excellent text/reference for professionals and students in such fields as aquatic chemistry, limnology, aqueous geochemistry, microbial ecology, marine science, environmental and water resources engineering, and geochemistry.
Category: Science

Experiments In Environmental Chemistry

Author : P D Vowles
ISBN : 9781483137483
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.63 MB
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Experiments in Environmental Chemistry presents experimental activities that provide practical, first hand experience in the observation of chemical processes occurring in the environment. A variety of techniques with applications in governmental laboratories, industry, and research are described. The experiments are divided into five parts: biochemical processes in aquatic systems; toxic substances in the environment; food additives and contaminants; chemical ecology; and field surveys. This book is divided into five sections and begins with a discussion on the transformations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy in aquatic systems. Various aspects of environmental chemistry including photosynthesis, respiration, biogeochemical cycling, primary production, plant nutrients, water quality, eutrophication, and wastewater treatment are considered. The next section focuses on a wide assortment of environmental contaminants in terms of their behavior and occurrence in various sectors of the environment. In this section, the reader is introduced to gas chromatography, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thin layer chromotography, column chromatography, and techniques for the measurement of atmospheric contaminants. Food and the occurrence of foreign substances that result from deliberate additions or other processes are also analyzed, along with chemical compounds such as allelochemicals, pheromones, and chemical defense substances. This monograph will be a valuable resource for environmental chemists.
Category: Science

Aquatic Functional Biodiversity

Author : Andrea Belgrano
ISBN : 9780124170209
Genre : Nature
File Size : 34.78 MB
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Aquatic Functional Biodiversity: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective provides a general conceptual framework by some of the most prominent investigators in the field for how to link eco-evolutionary approaches with functional diversity to understand and conserve the provisioning of ecosystem services in aquatic systems. Rather than producing another methodological book, the editors and authors primarily concentrate on defining common grounds, connecting conceptual frameworks and providing examples by a more detailed discussion of a few empirical studies and projects, which illustrate key ideas and an outline of potential future directions and challenges that are expected in this interdisciplinary research field. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using network approaches to disentangle the relationship between biodiversity, community structure and functioning. Novel methods for model construction are being developed constantly, and modern methods allow for the inclusion of almost any type of explanatory variable that can be correlated either with biodiversity or ecosystem functioning. As a result these models have been widely used in ecology, conservation and eco-evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable gap on how well these approaches are feasible to understand the mechanisms on how biodiversity constrains the provisioning of ecosystem services. Defines common theoretical grounds in terms of terminology and conceptual issues Connects theory and practice in ecology and eco-evolutionary sciences Provides examples for successful biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service management
Category: Nature

Marine Chemical Ecology

Author : James B. McClintock
ISBN : 1420036602
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.93 MB
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The interdisciplinary field of marine chemical ecology is an expanding and dynamic science. It is no surprise that the breadth of marine organisms studied expanded in concert with developments in underwater technology. With its up-to-date subject reviews by experts, Marine Chemical Ecology is the most current, comprehensive book on the subject. The book provides cellular, physiological, organismal, evolutionary, and applied perspectives creating a high-resolution snapshot of the field at the start of the 21st century. The introductory section provides a broad phylogenic overview of marine organic chemistry. With its emphasis on evolutionary, ecological, and biosynthetic considerations, it sets a foundation for the chapters that follow. The second section takes an organismal approach to understanding the role of secondary metabolites in mediating trophic interrelationships. Section three reviews cellular and physiological aspects of marine chemical ecology. The final section discusses practical applications. Fully detailed with figures, tables, and chemical structural diagrams, the book's coverage spans aspects of marine ecology from molecular to community levels, bridging diverse disciplines. Written by an international panel, Marine Chemical Ecology provides a conceptual synthesis and overview of the discipline. You get an integrated perspective of the current state of the field, and its future.
Category: Science

The Political Ecology Of Oil And Gas Activities In The Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystem

Author : Prince Emeka Ndimele
ISBN : 9780128096284
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.88 MB
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The Political Ecology of Oil and Gas Activities in the Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystem reviews the current status of the ecosystems and economic implications of oil and gas development in Nigeria, a key oil-producing state. The ecological and economic impacts of oil and gas development, particularly in developing nations, are crucial topics for ecologists, natural resource professionals and pollution researchers to understand. This book takes an integrative approach to these problems through the lens of one of the key oil-producing nations, linking natural and human systems through the valuation of ecosystem services. Provides background information on Nigerian aquatic environments, its local history of oil exploration and a review of the physical chemistry of crude oil Reviews global and national perspectives on the oil and gas industry from a physical ecological, to a socio-political and economic ecological perspective Demonstrates real-life situations of the interactions and impacts of Nigerian petroleum production on the environment and local populations through case studies
Category: Science

Chemical Ecology

Author : Jorg D. Hardege
ISBN : 9781848261792
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.32 MB
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Chemical Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Chemical Ecology provides the essential aspects of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. It deals with studies involving defensive chemicals which are utilized to deter potential predators, which may attack a wide variety of species, animal interaction, aquatic ecosystems, chemical ecology and pest management, relation to medicine and pharmaceuticals. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.
Category: Science