CARE IN THE PAST ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES

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Care In The Past

Author : Lindsay Powell
ISBN : 9781785703386
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23.11 MB
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Care-giving is an activity that has been practiced by all human societies. From the earliest societies through to the present, all humans have faced choices regarding how people in positions of dependency are to be treated. As such, care-giving, and the form it takes, is a central experience of being a human and one that is culturally mediated. Archaeology has tended to marginalise the study of care, and debates surrounding our ability to recognise it within the archaeological record have often remained implicit rather than a focus of discussion. These 12 papers examine the topic of care in past societies and specifically how we might recognise the provision of care in archaeological contexts and to open up an inter-disciplinary conversation, including historical, bioarchaeological, faunal and philosophical perspectives. The topic of ‘care’ is examined through three different strands: the provision of care throughout the life course, namely that provided to the youngest and oldest members of a society; care-giving and attitudes towards impairment and disability in prehistoric and historic contexts, and the role of animals as both recipients of care and as tools for its provision.
Category: Social Science

Thinking Through Material Culture

Author : Carl Knappett
ISBN : 9780812202496
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54.32 MB
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Material culture surrounds us and yet is habitually overlooked. So integral is it to our everyday lives that we take it for granted. This attitude has also afflicted the academic analysis of material culture, although this is now beginning to change, with material culture recently emerging as a topic in its own right within the social sciences. Carl Knappett seeks to contribute to this emergent field by adopting a wide-ranging interdisciplinary approach that is rooted in archaeology and integrates anthropology, sociology, art history, semiotics, psychology, and cognitive science. His thesis is that humans both act and think through material culture; ways of knowing and ways of doing are ingrained within even the most mundane of objects. This requires that we adopt a relational perspective on material artifacts and human agents, as a means of characterizing their complex interdependencies. In order to illustrate the networks of meaning that result, Knappett discusses examples ranging from prehistoric Aegean ceramics to Zande hunting nets and contemporary art. Thinking Through Material Culture argues that, although material culture forms the bedrock of archaeology, the discipline has barely begun to address how fundamental artifacts are to human cognition and perception. This idea of codependency among mind, action, and matter opens the way for a novel and dynamic approach to all of material culture, both past and present.
Category: Social Science

Medical Ethics Prediction And Prognosis

Author : Mariacarla Gadebusch Bondio
ISBN : 9781351802598
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.34 MB
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Recent scientific developments, in particular advances in pharmacogenetics and molecular genetics, have given rise to numerous predictive procedures for detecting predispositions to diseases in patients. This knowledge, however, does not necessarily promise benign results for either patients or health care professionals. The aim of this volume is to analyse issues related to prediction and prognosis as a burgeoning field of medicine, which is revolutionizing the way we understand and approach diagnosis and treatment. Combining epistemic and ethical reflection with medical expertise on contemporary practice and research, an interdisciplinary group of international experts critically examine anticipatory medicine from various perspectives, including history of medicine, bioethics, theories of science, and health economics. The highly complex issues involved in medical prediction call for a far-reaching debate on the value and scope of foreknowledge. For example, which responsibilities and burdens arise when still healthy people learn of their predisposition to diseases? How should health care insurance reflect risky life styles? Is the increasing medicalization of life connected with prevention ethically sustainable and financially possible in the developing world? These and other related issues are the subject of this timely and important book, which not only serves as an introduction to the area, but also proposes many feasible solutions to the problems outlined.
Category: Philosophy

Children Death And Burial

Author : Eileen Murphy
ISBN : 9781785707155
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.20 MB
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Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.
Category: Social Science

Hunter Gatherers

Author : Catherine Panter-Brick
ISBN : 0521776724
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.53 MB
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This 2001 volume is an interdisciplinary text on hunter-gatherer populations world-wide.
Category: Science

The Science Of Roman History

Author : Walter Scheidel
ISBN : 9781400889730
Genre : History
File Size : 37.61 MB
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How the latest cutting-edge science offers a fuller picture of life in Rome and antiquity This groundbreaking book provides the first comprehensive look at how the latest advances in the sciences are transforming our understanding of ancient Roman history. Walter Scheidel brings together leading historians, anthropologists, and geneticists at the cutting edge of their fields, who explore novel types of evidence that enable us to reconstruct the realities of life in the Roman world. Contributors discuss climate change and its impact on Roman history, and then cover botanical and animal remains, which cast new light on agricultural and dietary practices. They exploit the rich record of human skeletal material--both bones and teeth—which forms a bio-archive that has preserved vital information about health, nutritional status, diet, disease, working conditions, and migration. Complementing this discussion is an in-depth analysis of trends in human body height, a marker of general well-being. This book also assesses the contribution of genetics to our understanding of the past, demonstrating how ancient DNA is used to track infectious diseases, migration, and the spread of livestock and crops, while the DNA of modern populations helps us reconstruct ancient migrations, especially colonization. Opening a path toward a genuine biohistory of Rome and the wider ancient world, The Science of RomanHistory offers an accessible introduction to the scientific methods being used in this exciting new area of research, as well as an up-to-date survey of recent findings and a tantalizing glimpse of what the future holds.
Category: History

Breastfeeding

Author : Cecília Tomori
ISBN : 9781351383608
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.87 MB
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Breastfeeding: New Anthropological Approaches unites sociocultural, biological, and archaeological anthropological scholarship to spark new conversations and research about breastfeeding. While breastfeeding has become the subject of intense debate in many settings, anthropological perspectives have played a limited role in these conversations. The present volume seeks to broaden discussions around breastfeeding by showcasing fresh insights gleaned from an array of theoretical and methodological approaches, which are grounded in the close study of people across the globe. Drawing on case studies and analyses of key issues in the field, the book highlights the power of anthropological research to illuminate the evolutionary, historical, biological, and sociocultural context of the complex, lived experience of breastfeeding. By bringing together researchers across three anthropological subfields, the volume seeks to produce transformative knowledge about human lactation, breastfeeding, and human milk. This book is a key resource for scholars of medical and biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, bioarchaeology, sociocultural anthropology, and human development. Lactation professionals and peer supporters, midwives, and others who support infant feeding will find the book an essential read.
Category: Social Science

Human Trafficking

Author : Mary C. Burke
ISBN : 9781317395843
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 90.81 MB
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With a range of experts from different disciplines and professions, this text comprehensively explains human trafficking as it exists and is being addressed in the twenty-first century. The first section gives an overview of the issue and contextualizes it within a human rights and historical framework. The second section provides the reader with more detailed, interdisciplinary information about trafficking. The third section, which contains a chapter written by a former FBI agent, focuses on the anti-trafficking movement and addresses international responses to the problem, as well as considerations for working with victims. Human Trafficking closes with a chapter about how trafficking is being addressed and how individuals, larger social groups, and organizations can get involved in putting an end to the crime and to helping survivors. Human Trafficking is essential reading for professionals in law enforcement, human services, and health care, and for concerned citizens interested in human rights and making a difference in their communities. This book is also intended for use in undergraduate and graduate interdisciplinary courses in human trafficking.
Category: Social Science

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Author : Barry Carpenter OBE
ISBN : 9781134515431
Genre : Education
File Size : 53.36 MB
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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) have emerged as a major phenomenon within the education, health, criminal justice and social care systems of many countries, with current prevalence figures suggesting that one in a hundred children and young people have FASDs. In this publication, academics, professionals and families from around the world have shared expertise and insights on FASDs. Their combined interdisciplinary perspective makes an invaluable contribution to how we understand and address the complex social, educational and health needs associated with this growing group of children and young people. Articulating fundamental knowledge, cutting edge initiatives and emerging trends in FASDs, this book provides an evidence base that will enable services to identify and respond to the need for action on FASDs. It recognises that families – natural, foster or adoptive – are at the heart of this process, and that their rich knowledge base, grounded in their lived experience, is crucial. Any education, social care, criminal justice or health professional working with children and young people with FASDs and their families will find this book a seminal and authoritative resource.
Category: Education

In Search Of Self

Author : J. Wentzel van Huyssteen
ISBN : 9780802863867
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65.61 MB
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Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Category: Philosophy