Care In The Past

Author : Lindsay Powell
ISBN : 9781785703386
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77.31 MB
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Care-giving is an activity that has been practiced by all human societies. From the earliest societies through to the present, all humans have faced choices regarding how people in positions of dependency are to be treated. As such, care-giving, and the form it takes, is a central experience of being a human and one that is culturally mediated. Archaeology has tended to marginalise the study of care, and debates surrounding our ability to recognise it within the archaeological record have often remained implicit rather than a focus of discussion. These 12 papers examine the topic of care in past societies and specifically how we might recognise the provision of care in archaeological contexts and to open up an inter-disciplinary conversation, including historical, bioarchaeological, faunal and philosophical perspectives. The topic of ‘care’ is examined through three different strands: the provision of care throughout the life course, namely that provided to the youngest and oldest members of a society; care-giving and attitudes towards impairment and disability in prehistoric and historic contexts, and the role of animals as both recipients of care and as tools for its provision.
Category: Social Science

Children Death And Burial

Author : Eileen Murphy
ISBN : 9781785707155
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26.99 MB
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Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.
Category: Social Science

Telling Children About The Past

Author : Nena Galanidou
ISBN : UOM:39015077611039
Genre : Education
File Size : 47.41 MB
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The past is 'a foreign place' that contemporary societies can only reach by means of historical and archaeological inferences. When we report our findings and communicate such inferences to members of the public, it is important that we should recognize that children are a special case. Their cognitive abilities are different from those of adults: they must go through a period of apprenticeship in order to become capable of processing critically the information that is presented to them. Children are shown images of the past and told stories about it in various contexts that range from the formal and educational to the informal (for example, the genre of popular books, films and video games about antiquity). These images and stories, whether their source be a professional archaeologist, a teacher or simply an individual with a personal interest in the subject, all share a common factor: they must be fairly simple and easily available to the understanding of the age group at which they are aimed. Representations of this sort tend to ignore recent archaeological debate, continuing to purvey images of the past that are immediately recognizable from a modern perspective and may even actively reinforce that perspective. They are thus intimately connected with contemporary power strategies. This book brings together archeologists, historians, psychologists, and educators from different countries and academic traditions to address the many ways that we tell children about the (distant) past. The concern with this issue is founded on the principle that knowing the past is fundamentally important for human societies, as well as for individual development. The subject is introduced through a consideration of the cognitive and psychological processes that enable children to conceptualize a past at all. Then the many informal and formal contexts of telling are reviewed: digital and printed media, museums and cultural heritage sites, and schools and special classrooms. Benefits and disadvantages of various contexts and approaches are discussed, all seen through the eyes of professionals within these fields. Throughout this discussion, the authors expose many of unquestioned assumptions and preformed images that are routinely presented to contemporary children in narratives of the past. The contributors both examine the ways in which children come to grips with the past at the beginning of the 21st century and critically assess the many ways in which contemporary societies and an increasing number of commercial agents construct and use the past. Considering the widening gap between contemporary theoretical advances in archaeology and what is disseminated to the young, the question is raised about which past we want our children to inherit.
Category: Education

Built Environments Constructed Societies

Author : Benjamin N. Vis
ISBN : 9789088900389
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28.21 MB
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Archaeology, as the discipline that searches to explain the development of society by means of material remains, has been avoiding the big issues involved with its research agenda. The topic of social evolution is concealed by anxiety about previous paradigmatic malpractice and the primary archaeological division of the world in culture areas still suffers from the archaic methods by which it was established. Archaeological inference of developing societies is weighed down by its choice of particularism within agency approaches and overtly reductionist due to the prevalence of statistical, classificatory and biological approaches. This book addresses these issues through a perspective on the spatial analysis of the built environment. As one of the principal properties of our dataset, as well as being the first materialisation of sociality, such spatialities are suggested to be a fundamental key for enabling an understanding of the developing social identity of places, regions and areas. In order to arrive at a truly social inference of spatial datasets, archaeology's usual analysis working from material remains towards socio-cultural interpretations needs to be inverted. The vantage point of this study consists of aprioristic social theory. It constructs its arguments through an epistemological foundation comprising a selection of essential ideas regarding the three constitutive axes of developing societies: time, human action and human space. As it recognises the inherent position of these axes combined in the discipline of human geography, a historical comparison of these two disciplines presents the angle from which plausible theoretical advancements can be made. The core of the book explores selected works of human geographers Allan Pred, Benno Werlen and Andreas Koch against the backdrop of theories like structuration or systems theory, phenomenology, action theory, and to a lesser extent Actor Network Theory and autopoiesis. From this follows its own theoretical proposal called the social positioning of spatialities. On this basis hypotheses for methodological opportunities are discussed, establishing a research agenda. Firmly placing its efforts in current paradigmatic debates in the discipline, this study offers archaeological theorists an incentive to leave the safety of materially bound science and adapt an alternative perspective. It is an attempt to put archaeology back in the forefront of the social theoretical debates it should contribute to.
Category: Social Science