CANNIBALISM IN THE LINEAR POTTERY CULTURE THE HUMAN REMAINS FROM HERXHEIM

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Cannibalism In The Linear Pottery Culture

Author : Bruno Boulestin
ISBN : 1784912131
Genre :
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The Herxheim enclosure, located in the German region of Palatinate, is one of the major discoveries of the last two decades regarding the Linear Pottery Culture, and probably one of the most significant in advancing understanding of how this culture ended. The spectacular deposits, mostly composed of human remains, recovered on the occasion of the two excavation campaigns carried out on the site, grabbed people's attention and at the same time raised several questions regarding their interpretation, which had so far mostly hesitated between peculiar funerary practices, war and cannibalism. The authors provide here the first extensive study of the human remains found at Herxheim, focusing mainly on those recovered during the 2005-2010 excavation campaign. They first examine the field data in order to reconstruct at best the modalities of deposition of these remains. Next, from the quantitative analyses and those of the bone modifications, they describe the treatments of the dead, showing that they actually were the victims of cannibalistic practices. The nature of this cannibalism is then discussed on the basis of biological, palaeodemographic and isotopic studies, and concludes that an exocannibalism existed linked to armed violence. Finally, the human remains are placed in both their local and chronocultural contexts, and a general interpretation is proposed of the events that unfolded in Herxheim and of the reasons for the social crisis at the end of the Linear Pottery culture in which they took place.
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Population Dynamics In Prehistory And Early History

Author : Elke Kaiser
ISBN : 9783110266306
Genre : History
File Size : 89.36 MB
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The state of migration research has undergone rapid change since methods of analysis involving stable and radiogen isotopes and molecular genetics have started to be applied. At a conference held in Berlin in March 2010, groups whose research looks at population dynamics in pre and early, or in more recent history presented their insights about methodological approaches, research results and perspectives. The aim of this volume is to conduct a dialogue between archaeologists, geneticists and archaeometrists for the purpose of a reconstruction of (pre)historic population history.
Category: History

Ember Of Ashes

Author : Tom Watson
ISBN : 9781387210299
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 62.9 MB
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Ember and Brig'dha prepare for a journey to the ancient city of Yarehk (Jericho) to deliver a prized copper knife. Far to the East on the shores of the Indus River, a river priestess hides her young daughter and flees persecution from her own people who blame her for the drought which afflicts them. She is relentlessly pursued by four hunters sent to capture her for sacrifice! Set in the early Neolithic period, 5496 BCE, Ember of Ashes follows the continuing adventures of Ember and her wife Brig'dha as they journey across the known world. They will visit the prehistoric Middle East, cross the Arabian desert, befriend cannibals, see the famous city of Catalhoyuk and even visit the mighty Indus River as they fight to save the life of a young girl from the fate of the gods.
Category: Fiction

Sticks Stones And Broken Bones

Author : Rick J. Schulting
ISBN : 9780199573066
Genre : History
File Size : 38.26 MB
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Violence has long been recognised as a factor in Neolithic society; what is far less clear is how significant it was. Focusing on evidence of violent injuries in human skeletons, this study draws together together archaeologists from across Europe to present the latest findings in their regional contexts. The case studies examine such evidence for violence in the context of total populations to give an idea of scale. As well as examining regional variation, the contributions offer perspectives on the relationship between violent death and mortuary practice, on variations in violent injuries across age and sex, on chronological developments and on the nature of and incidence of recovery from, injuries.
Category: History

War Peace And Human Nature

Author : Douglas P. Fry
ISBN : 9780190232467
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.94 MB
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Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior--and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as a human universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war is ancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking. Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute many popular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.
Category: Social Science

Warfare In Neolithic Europe

Author : Julian Maxwell Heath
ISBN : 9781473879874
Genre : History
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The Neolithic ('New Stone Age') marks the time when the prehistoric communities of Europe turned their backs on the hunter-gatherer lifestyle that they had followed for many thousands of years, and instead, became farmers. The significance of this switch from a lifestyle that had been based on the hunting and gathering of wild food resources, to one that involved the growing of crops and raising livestock, cannot be underestimated. Although it was a complex process that varied from place to place, there can be little doubt that it was during the Neolithic that the foundations for the incredibly complex modern societies in which we live today were laid. However, we would be wrong to think that the first farming communities of Europe were in tune with nature and each other, as there is a considerable (and growing) body of archaeological data that is indicative of episodes of warfare between these communities. This evidence should not be taken as proof that warfare was endemic across Neolithic Europe, but it does strongly suggest that it was more common than some scholars have proposed. Furthermore, the words of the seventeenth-century English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, who famously described prehistoric life as 'nasty, brutish, and short', seem rather apt in light of some of the archaeological discoveries from the European Neolithic.
Category: History

Diversity Of Sacrifice

Author : Carrie Ann Murray
ISBN : 9781438459967
Genre : RELIGION
File Size : 88.26 MB
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Explores sacrificial practices across a range of contexts from prehistory to the present.

The term "sacrifice" belies what is a complex and varied transhistorical and transcultural phenomenon. Bringing together scholars from such diverse fields as anthropology, archaeology, epigraphy, literature, and theology, Diversity of Sacrifice explores sacrificial practices across a range of contexts from prehistory to the present. Incorporating theory, material culture, and textual evidence, the volume seeks to consider new and divergent data related to contexts of sacrifice that can help broaden our field of vision while raising new questions. The essays contributed here move beyond reductive and simple explanations to explore complex areas of social interaction. Sacrifice plays a key role in the overlapping sacred and secular spheres for a number of societies in the past and present. How religious beliefs and practices can be integral parts of life on individual and community levels is of fundamental importance to understanding the past and present. In addition to aiding scholarly research, Diversity of Sacrifice enables students to explore this rich theme across Europe and the Mediterranean with clear discussions of theory and data.
Category: RELIGION

The Origins Of War

Author : Jean Guilaine
ISBN : 9780470775394
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35.53 MB
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Stretching across continents and centuries, The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory provides a fascinating examination of executions, torture, ritual sacrifices, and other acts of violence committed in the prehistoric world. Written as an accessible guide to the nature of life in prehistory and to the underpinnings of human violence. Combines symbolic interpretations of archaeological remains with a medical understanding of violent acts. Written by an eminent prehistorian and a respected medical doctor.
Category: Social Science

Prehistoric Cannibalism At Mancos 5mtumr 2346

Author : Tim D. White
ISBN : 9781400852925
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44.64 MB
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Cannibalism is one of the oldest and most emotionally charged topics in anthropological literature. Tim White's analysis of human bones from an Anasazi pueblo in southwestern Colorado, site 5MTUMR-2346, reveals that nearly thirty men, women, and children were butchered and cooked there around A.D. 1100. Their bones were fractured for marrow, and the remains discarded in several rooms of the pueblo. By comparing the human skeletal remains with those of animals used for food at other sites, the author analyzes evidence for skinning, dismembering, cooking, and fracturing to infer that cannibalism took place at Mancos. As White evaluates claims for cannibalism in ethnographic and archaeological contexts worldwide, he describes how cultural biases can often distort the interpretation of scientific data. This book applies and introduces anatomical, taphonomic, zooarchaeological, and forensic methods in the investigation of prehistoric human behavior. It is an important example of how we can exchange opinion for knowledge. "Cannibalism is a controversial topic because many people do not want to believe that their prehistoric ancestors engaged in such activity, but they will be hard put to reject this meticulous study."--Kent V. Flannery, University of Michigan "This is the best piece of detailed research yet to appear that seeks to put in place a body of justified knowledge and a procedure for its use in making inferences about the past. No student of bones can ignore this work."--Lewis R. Binford, University of New Mexico "This could be one of the most important books in archaeology written in the last decade."--James F. O'Connell, University of Utah "Paleontologists and zooarchaeologists, archaeologists and physical anthropologists, taphonomists, and forensic scientists should all read this work. Quite frankly, I think this will become one of the most important books of the 1990s..."--R. Lee Lyman, University of Missouri-Columbia Originally published in 1992. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Category: Social Science

First Migrants

Author : Peter Bellwood
ISBN : 9781118325896
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56.66 MB
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The first publication to outline the complex global story of human migration and dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory. Utilizing archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence, Peter Bellwood traces the journeys of the earliest hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist migrants as critical elements in the evolution of human lifeways. The first volume to chart global human migration and population dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory, in all regions of the world An archaeological odyssey that details the initial spread of early humans out of Africa approximately two million years ago, through the Ice Ages, and down to the continental and island migrations of agricultural populations within the past 10,000 years Employs archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence to demonstrate how migration has always been a vital and complex element in explaining the evolution of the human species Outlines how significant migrations have affected population diversity in every region of the world Clarifies the importance of the development of agriculture as a migratory imperative in later prehistory Fully referenced with detailed maps throughout
Category: Social Science