BLOOD AND VIOLENCE IN EARLY MODERN FRANCE

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Blood And Violence In Early Modern France

Author : Stuart Carroll
ISBN : 9780199290451
Genre : History
File Size : 40.22 MB
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The rise of civilized conduct and behaviour has long been seen as one of the major factors in the transformation from medieval to modern society. Thinkers and historians alike argue that violence progressively declined as men learned to control their emotions. The feud is a phenomenon associated with backward societies, and in the West duelling codified behaviour and channelled aggression into ritualised combats that satisfied honour without the shedding of blood. French manners andcodes of civility laid the foundations of civilized Western values. But as this original work of archival research shows we continue to romanticize violence in the era of the swashbuckling swordsman. In France, thousands of men died in duels in which the rules of the game were regularly flouted.Many duels were in fact mini-battles and must be seen not as a replacement of the blood feud, but as a continuation of vengeance-taking in a much bloodier form. This book outlines the nature of feuding in France and its intensification in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, civil war and dynastic weakness, and considers the solutions proposed by thinkers from Montaigne to Hobbes. The creation of the largest standing army in Europe since the Romans was one such solution, but themilitarization of society, a model adopted throughout Europe, reveals the darker side of the civilizing process.
Category: History

Cultures Of Conflict Resolution In Early Modern Europe

Author : Stephen Cummins
ISBN : 9781134802647
Genre : History
File Size : 20.83 MB
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Disputes, discord and reconciliation were fundamental parts of the fabric of communal living in early modern Europe. This edited volume presents essays on the cultural codes of conflict and its resolution in this period under three broad themes: peacemaking as practice; the nature of mediation and arbitration; and the role of criminal law in conflicts. Through an exploration of conflict and peacemaking, this volume provides innovative accounts of state formation, community and religion in the early modern period.
Category: History

Violence And Emotions In Early Modern Europe

Author : Susan Broomhall
ISBN : 9781317424192
Genre : History
File Size : 72.48 MB
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Violence and Emotions in Early Modern Europe examines the purposes for which specific forms of violence and particular emotional states functioned, how they operated in relation to each other, or indeed how one provoked, sustained or diminished the other. These twelve original essays demonstrate the complexities of violence and emotions and the myriad possibilities of their inter-relationships. They emphasize the great efforts that were made by early modern societies to control modes of violence and emotional regimes to achieve positive as well as negative effects, such as creating order, healing, and bringing individuals and communities together around productive identities. Authors consider legal documents, news reports, memoirs, letters, confraternity statutes, and medical consultations to investigate the bodily and textual practices in which violent and emotional acts were created, supported and disseminated to investigate the power, aims, effect and outcomes of relationships between violence and emotions. The chapters look at a range of topics and countries including Renaissance Italy and sixteenth-century Germany, France in the grip of the religious wars, and England’s Civil Wars as well as a wide range of topics including murder, punishment, community healing, insults, threats, prophecy and medical and devotional practices. This collection will be essential reading for students and scholars of the history of emotions or violence.
Category: History

An Economy Of Violence In Early Modern France

Author : Malcolm R. Greenshields
ISBN : STANFORD:36105009782736
Genre : History
File Size : 27.74 MB
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An Economy of Violence in Early Modern France takes the reader to a relatively little known area of early modern France to examine the behavior, attitudes, and environment of its inhabitants. It examines the uses and characteristics of violence and discusses what violence can tell us about the mentality of the people of the region. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the people of the Haute Auvergne kept their troubles to themselves. In this remote mountain region, the official forces of law and order were small in number and the mounted police could seldom penetrate very deep into the life of rural communities. When they did intervene, they left a trail of evidence that enables us to catch a glimpse of a private world characterized by the use of violence. Using police records, other archival materials, and the growing literature on the history of crime, Malcolm Greenshields argues that violence was often a form of private justice or vengeance that affected all levels of society. This "economy of violence" could be seen in confrontations between peasants fighting over the use of hay meadows, in drunken scuffles that broke out in taverns, and in the attacks against royal tax officials or other outsiders who threatened the rural community. Likewise, the nobility frequently indulged in duels and violent chicanery. In response, the criminal courts relied on rituals of humiliation and public displays of power to establish order, although official justice was often ineffective. Not until the 1660s did the French monarchy begin to get the upper hand. Through its Grand Jours d'Auvergne, the crown would try to assert a monopoly over the use of violence in the region. This study thus describes a significant stage in the movement toward a modern sensibility and brings to light a society and a phenomenon that have previously received little attention.
Category: History

Women Crime And Forgiveness In Early Modern Portugal

Author : Darlene Abreu-Ferreira
ISBN : 9781472442338
Genre : History
File Size : 23.56 MB
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Looking at the experiences of women in early modern Portugal in the context of crime and forgiveness, this study demonstrates the extent to which judicial and quasi-judicial records can be used to examine the implications of crime in women’s lives, whether as victims or culprits. The foundational basis for this study is two sets of manuscript sources that highlight two distinct yet connected experiences of women as participants in the criminal process. One consists of a collection of archival documents from the first half of the seventeenth century, a corpus called 'querelas,' in which formal accusations of criminal acts were registered. This is a rich source of information not only about the types of crimes reported, but also the process that plaintiffs had to follow to deal with their cases. The second primary source consists of a sampling of documents known as the ‘perdão de parte.’ The term refers to the victim’s pardon, unique to the Iberian Peninsula, which allowed individuals implicated in serious conflicts to have a voice in the judicial process. By looking at a sample of these pardons, found in notary collections from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Abreu-Ferreira is able to show the extent to which women exercised their agency in a legal process that was otherwise male-dominated.
Category: History

Civil Justice In Renaissance Scotland

Author : Andrew Mark Godfrey
ISBN : 9789004174665
Genre : History
File Size : 78.43 MB
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This book offers a fundamental reassessment of the origins of a central court in Scotland. It examines the early judicial role of Parliament, the development of the Session in the fifteenth century as a judicial sitting of the King s Council, and its reconstitution as the College of Justice in 1532. Drawing on new archival research into jurisdictional change, litigation and dispute settlement, the book breaks with established interpretations and argues for the overriding significance of the foundation of the College of Justice as a supreme central court administering civil justice. This signalled a fundamental transformation in the medieval legal order of Scotland, reflecting a European pattern in which new courts of justice developed out of the jurisdiction of royal councils.
Category: History

Wargames

Author : Martin van Creveld
ISBN : 9781107036956
Genre : Computers
File Size : 74.15 MB
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Explores the history and development of wargames, and how they relate to real war and society in general.
Category: Computers

Feud In Medieval And Early Modern Europe

Author : Jeppe Büchert Netterstrøm
ISBN : UCSC:32106019481818
Genre : History
File Size : 80.99 MB
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We tend to think of a feud as being a long established state of hostilities, especially between families or clans, which normally manifests itself in revengeful violence. One of the articles in this volume thus states: "What began as a dispute over the property rights of a woman to whom both parties were related quickly mutated into a violent clash between men, in which honour and reputation were at stake -- and from here to a full-blown feud the distance was rather short". However, the studies of feuds presented in this publication leave no doubt that they were very different in different societies. The phenomenon of feud turns out to be intimately connected with developments in society and state. Consequently, in recent years a growing interest has been aroused in further researching the topic and the aim of this book is therefore to present some of the principal positions of this new research. Contributions by leading scholars in the field cover a large span of years, from the classic Icelandic feuds of the Sagas to more recent Early-Modern incidents. One contribution even takes us back to the roots of mankind, but the focus of the book is mainly on the Medieval and Early-Modern period. The volume is opened with a comprehensive introduction to the field, followed by a chapter that seeks general definitions. Hereafter, we are presented with specific cases of Icelandic women from the Sagas who promote feuds, studies of feuds in 14th century Marseilles, Italian Medieval vendettas, and feuding in Medieval Germany and Denmark.
Category: History

The Faithful Executioner

Author : Joel F. Harrington
ISBN : 9780809049936
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 77.95 MB
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Based on the rare and until now overlooked journal of a Renaissance-era executioner, the noted historian Joel F. Harrington's The Faithful Executioner takes us deep inside the alien world and thinking of Meister Frantz Schmidt of Nuremberg, who, during forty-five years as a professional executioner, personally put to death 394 individuals and tortured, flogged, or disfigured many hundreds more. But the picture that emerges of Schmidt from his personal papers is not that of a monster. Could a man who routinely practiced such cruelty also be insightful, compassionate—even progressive? In The Faithful Executioner, Harrington vividly re-creates a life filled with stark contrasts, from the young apprentice's rigorous training under his executioner father to the adult Meister Frantz's juggling of familial duties with his work in the torture chamber and at the scaffold. With him we encounter brutal highwaymen, charming swindlers, and tragic unwed mothers accused of infanticide, as well as patrician senators, godly chaplains, and corrupt prison guards. Harrington teases out the hidden meanings and drama of Schmidt's journal, uncovering a touching tale of inherited shame and attempted redemption for the social pariah and his children. The Faithful Executioner offers not just the compelling firsthand perspective of a professional torturer and killer, but testimony of one man's lifelong struggle to reconcile his bloody craft with his deep religious faith. The biography of an ordinary man struggling for his soul, this groundbreaking book also offers an unparalleled panoramic view of Europe on the cusp of modernity, a society riven by violent conflict at all levels and encumbered by paranoia, superstition, and abuses of power. Thanks to an extraordinary historical source and its gifted interpreter, we recognize far more of ourselves than we might have expected in this intimate portrait of a professional killer from a faraway world.
Category: Biography & Autobiography