BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF FORESTED CATCHMENTS IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT A GERMAN CASE STUDY ECOLOGICAL STUDIES
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Forest ecosystems represent a major type ofland use in Germanyand in Europe. They provide a number of functions, or ecosystem services, beneficial to humans, namely biomass production, regulation of the water- and energy cyde, C and N sequestration, erosion control, recreation, and they act as habitat for numerous species. The stability of forest ecosystems in Europe as influenced by the deposition of air pollutants has been a matter of debate for more than 20 years. Besides atmospheric deposition, other environmental conditions affecting forest ecosystems, such as temperature, CO content of the atmosphere 2 and precipitation, have significantly changed in the past and continue to change in the future. Quantifying and predicting the effects of these changes on ecosys tem functioning are achallenge to ecosystem research and also a requirement to establish sustainable use of forest ecosystems in the future. This book summarizes results of long-term, interdisciplinary ecosystem research conducted in two forested catchments and coordinated at the Bayreuth Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (BITÖK), University of Bayreuth, Germany. It does not aim to summarize all the research of BITÖ K in the past decade, which would go far beyond the studies in these two catch ments. Instead, we concentrate here on the long-term developments in the biogeochemistry of carbon and mineral elements and on the water cyde, at both the plot and the catchment scale.
Temperate forests cover large areas of Europe and perform a number of important functions such as the regulation of energy and matter, production of wood and other resources, and conservation of biodiversity and habitats; they also have special signi?cance in social and cultural contexts. Initiated in 1960s, the ?rst International Biological Program (IBP) focused on ‘‘the biological basis of productivity and human welfare. ’’ As the German contribution to the IBP, ecosystem research has been carried out since 1966 in the Solling area (Ellenberg H. , Ecological Studies 2, 1971), an upland region in Northwest Germany. This study provided clear evidence that the stability of forest ecosystems was threatened by the high inputs of at- spheric pollutants. This promoted many interdisciplinary research programs which were coordinated by Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ulrich and the Forest Ecosystems Research Center of the University of Go ̈ttingen. This involved, in addition to the Solling site, the establishment of two other sites for long-term monitoring of ecosystem pro- ̈ cesses. The two contrasting sites were established in 1980 at Gottinger Wald on base-rich calcareous soil and in 1989 at Zierenberg on volcanic soil. These projects were funded initially by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMBF) as interdisciplinary projects under the titles: ‘‘Conditions of Stability of Forest Ecosystems’’ (1989–1993), and ‘‘Dynamics of Forest Ecos- tems’’ (1993–1998). The primary goal of these studies was to quantify the ecolo- cal condition of forests in a changing environment and element ?uxes.
Author : Bhupinder Pal Singh
ISBN : 364220256X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36.44 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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“Soil Health and Climate Change” presents a comprehensive overview of the concept of soil health, including the significance of key soil attributes and management of soil health in conventional and emerging land use systems in the context of climate change. Starting with a review of the physical, chemical and biological indicators of soil health and their significance for monitoring the impacts of climate change, this book then focuses on describing the role of soil structure, pH, organic matter, nitrogen, respiration and biota in sustaining the basic functions of soil ecosystems, and their anticipated responses to climate change. Further topics include the management of cropping, pastoral, and forestry systems, and rehabilitated mine sites, with a focus on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change impacts. Finally, the opportunities and potential risks of organic farming, biochar and bioenergy systems, and their ability to sustain and even enhance soil health, are discussed.
Author : C. Kendall
ISBN : 9780080929156
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.66 MB
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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.