BEYOND GERMS NATIVE DEPOPULATION IN NORTH AMERICA AMERIND STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY

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Beyond Germs

Author : Catherine M. Cameron
ISBN : 9780816532209
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 76.38 MB
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There is no question that European colonization introduced smallpox, measles, and other infectious diseases to the Americas, causing considerable harm and death to indigenous peoples. But though these diseases were devastating, their impact has been widely exaggerated. Warfare, enslavement, land expropriation, removals, erasure of identity, and other factors undermined Native populations. These factors worked in a deadly cabal with germs to cause epidemics, exacerbate mortality, and curtail population recovery. Beyond Germs: Native Depopulation in North America challenges the “virgin soil” hypothesis that was used for decades to explain the decimation of the indigenous people of North America. This hypothesis argues that the massive depopulation of the New World was caused primarily by diseases brought by European colonists that infected Native populations lacking immunity to foreign pathogens. In Beyond Germs, contributors expertly argue that blaming germs lets Europeans off the hook for the enormous number of Native American deaths that occurred after 1492. Archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians come together in this cutting-edge volume to report a wide variety of other factors in the decline in the indigenous population, including genocide, forced labor, and population dislocation. These factors led to what the editors describe in their introduction as “systemic structural violence” on the Native populations of North America. While we may never know the full extent of Native depopulation during the colonial period because the evidence available for indigenous communities is notoriously slim and problematic, what is certain is that a generation of scholars has significantly overemphasized disease as the cause of depopulation and has downplayed the active role of Europeans in inciting wars, destroying livelihoods, and erasing identities.
Category: Social Science

Identification And Interpretation Of Joint Disease In Paleopathology And Forensic Anthropology

Author : Nicole M. Burt
ISBN : 9780398087593
Genre : Law
File Size : 70.54 MB
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The goals of this guide to the identification and interpretation of joint disease are: (1) to identify the diagnostic criteria that are relevant to investigations of joint disease in dry and macerated bone specimens; (2) to differentiate between various disease forms; and (3) to highlight contentious issues, such as the antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis and the implications of the prevalence and severity of joint disease for reconstructing the behaviors of past peoples. The text advocates the use of unambiguous terminology and hence discusses descriptive terms and illustrates how the use of colloquial or otherwise inappropriate terms can lead to errors of interpretation. Joint disease causes proliferative and/or erosive bony lesions that preferentially, but not exclusively, affect the synovial joints of the body and this manual emphasizes those diseases. The major sections of the book review the pathogenesis, disease process, anatomical distribution, and diagnosis of osteoarthritis; multi-focal erosive arthropathies (i.e., rheumatoid arthritis and the seronegative arthropathies); the less common diseases of synovial joints, including gout, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and septic arthritis; and conditions affecting the non-synovial joints of the spine such as spinal osteophytosis, degenerative disc disease, Schmorl’s nodes, and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. The text is greatly enhanced by exceptional illustrations and a glossary of terms completes the book.
Category: Law

Rethinking The Aztec Economy

Author : Deborah L. Nichols
ISBN : 9780816536337
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58.53 MB
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With its rich archaeological and historical record, the Aztec empire provides an intriguing opportunity to understand the dynamics and structure of early states and empires. Rethinking the Aztec Economy brings together leading scholars from multiple disciplines to thoroughly synthesize and examine the nature of goods and their movements across rural and urban landscapes in Mesoamerica. In so doing, they provide a new way of understanding society and economy in the Aztec empire. The volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 synthesizes our current understanding of the Aztec economy and singles out the topics of urbanism and provincial merchant activity for more detailed analysis. Part 2 brings new data and a new conceptual approach that applies insights from behavioral economics to Nahua and Aztec rituals and social objects. Contributors also discuss how high-value luxury goods, such as feather art, provide insights about both economic and sacred concepts of value in Aztec society. Part 3 reexamines the economy at the Aztec periphery. The volume concludes with a synthesis on the scale, integration, and nature of change in the Aztec imperial economy. Rethinking the Aztec Economy illustrates how superficially different kinds of social contexts were in fact integrated into a single society through the processes of a single economy. Using the world of goods as a crucial entry point, this volume advances scholarly understanding of life in the Aztec world. Contributors: Frances F. Berdan Laura Filloy Nadal Janine Gasco Colin Hirth Kenneth G. Hirth Sarah Imfeld María Olvido Moreno Guzmán Deborah L. Nichols Alan R. Sandstrom Pamela Effrein Sandstrom Michael E. Smith Barbara L. Stark Emily Umberger
Category: Social Science

Knowledge In Motion

Author : Andrew P. Roddick
ISBN : 9780816532605
Genre : Education
File Size : 79.50 MB
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"This book brings together archaeologists, historians, and cultural anthropologists to explore communities engaged in a range of practices, from spiritual mediums in east Africa, healers and fishermen in the Amazon, potters of the U.S. Southwest, and populations navigating climate change in the deep past, drawing on the growing interdisciplinary situated learning scholarship to explore processes of learning"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Education

Guns Germs And Steel The Fates Of Human Societies

Author : Jared Diamond
ISBN : 9780393609295
Genre : History
File Size : 79.71 MB
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"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.
Category: History

Rethinking Anthropological Perspectives On Migration

Author : Jeffrey J. Clar
ISBN : 0813036070
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61.50 MB
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All too often, anthropologists study specific facets of human migration without guidance from the other subdisciplines (archaeology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics) that can provide new insights on the topic. The equivocal results of these narrow studies often make the discussion of impact and consequences speculative. In the last decade, however, anthropologists working independently in the four subdisciplines have developed powerful methodologies to detect and assess the scale of past migrations. Yet these advances are known only to a few specialized researchers. Rethinking Anthropological Perspectives on Migrationbrings together these new methods in one volume and addresses innovative approaches to migration research that emerge from the collective effort of scholars from different intellectual backgrounds. Its contributors present a comprehensive anthropological exploration of the many topics related to human migration throughout the world, ranging from theoretical treatments to specific case studies derived primarily from the Americas prior to European contact.
Category: Social Science

Sexuality In Adolescence

Author : Meredith Temple-Smith
ISBN : 9781317909590
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 67.29 MB
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Sexuality in Adolescence: The Digital Generation provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of research and theory about adolescent sexuality in today’s world. The book examines biological, social and health-related approaches and reviews qualitative and quantitative research from psychology, sociology, epidemiology and medicine, emphasising the interplay between perspectives and privileging the voices of young people as they discuss the joys and pains of sexual awakening. The focus is on understanding healthy sexual development and its many variations, but problems and issues arising as young people make their journey to adult sexuality are also considered. The book presents global research on many key issues of our time, including the impact of media and technology on adolescent sexuality, changes in adolescent sexual behaviors and beliefs, sexual risk taking, sex education, and teen pregnancy and abortion. This fully revised and updated third edition of Sexuality in Adolescence also addresses the crucial issues of sexual diversity, sexual safety and sexual communication, including coercion, peer pressure and double standards. In Sexuality in Adolescence: The Digital Generation, the authors aim to promote sexual wellbeing, and argue for the importance of the adolescent period as a time for engendering healthy sexual attitudes and practices. This book will be valuable reading for students in the social, behavioural and health sciences who are interested in adolescent development and the topic of sexuality, as well as for professionals working with young people and families.
Category: Psychology

Ten Thousand Years Of Inequality

Author : Timothy A. Kohler
ISBN : 9780816537747
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27.71 MB
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"Field-defining research that will set the standard for understanding inequality in archaeological contexts"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Social Science

Archaeology Of Native North America

Author : Dean R Snow, Professor
ISBN : 9781317350064
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 76.40 MB
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This comprehensive text is intended for the junior-senior level course in North American Archaeology. Written by accomplished scholar Dean Snow, this new text approaches native North America from the perspective of evolutionary ecology. Succinct, streamlined chapters present an extensive groundwork for supplementary material, or serve as a core text.The narrative covers all of Mesoamerica, and explicates the links between the part of North America covered by the United States and Canada and the portions covered by Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and the Greater Antilles. Additionally, book is extensively illustrated with the author's own research and findings.
Category: Social Science

Demography In Archaeology

Author : Andrew T. Chamberlain
ISBN : 9781139455343
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21.59 MB
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Demography in Archaeology, first published in 2006, is a review of current theory and method in the reconstruction of populations from archaeological data. Starting with a summary of demographic concepts and methods, the book examines historical and ethnographic sources of demographic evidence before addressing the methods by which reliable demographic estimates can be made from skeletal remains, settlement evidence and modern and ancient biomolecules. Recent debates in palaeodemography are evaluated, new statistical methods for palaeodemographic reconstruction are explained, and the notion that past demographic structures and processes were substantially different from those pertaining today is critiqued. The book covers a wide span of evidence, from the evolutionary background of human demography to the influence of natural and human-induced catastrophes on population growth and survival. This is essential reading for any archaeologist or anthropologist with an interest in relating the results of field and laboratory studies to broader questions of population structure and dynamics.
Category: Social Science