BEYOND GERMS NATIVE DEPOPULATION IN NORTH AMERICA AMERIND STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY

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Beyond Germs

Author : Catherine M. Cameron
ISBN : 9780816532209
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.54 MB
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There is no question that European colonization introduced smallpox, measles, and other infectious diseases to the Americas, causing considerable harm and death to indigenous peoples. But though these diseases were devastating, their impact has been widely exaggerated. Warfare, enslavement, land expropriation, removals, erasure of identity, and other factors undermined Native populations. These factors worked in a deadly cabal with germs to cause epidemics, exacerbate mortality, and curtail population recovery. Beyond Germs: Native Depopulation in North America challenges the “virgin soil” hypothesis that was used for decades to explain the decimation of the indigenous people of North America. This hypothesis argues that the massive depopulation of the New World was caused primarily by diseases brought by European colonists that infected Native populations lacking immunity to foreign pathogens. In Beyond Germs, contributors expertly argue that blaming germs lets Europeans off the hook for the enormous number of Native American deaths that occurred after 1492. Archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians come together in this cutting-edge volume to report a wide variety of other factors in the decline in the indigenous population, including genocide, forced labor, and population dislocation. These factors led to what the editors describe in their introduction as “systemic structural violence” on the Native populations of North America. While we may never know the full extent of Native depopulation during the colonial period because the evidence available for indigenous communities is notoriously slim and problematic, what is certain is that a generation of scholars has significantly overemphasized disease as the cause of depopulation and has downplayed the active role of Europeans in inciting wars, destroying livelihoods, and erasing identities.
Category: Social Science

Guns Germs And Steel The Fates Of Human Societies

Author : Jared Diamond
ISBN : 9780393609295
Genre : History
File Size : 75.37 MB
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"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.
Category: History

The Oxford Handbook Of Southwest Archaeology

Author : Barbara Mills
ISBN : 9780199978427
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 73.86 MB
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The American Southwest is one of the most important archaeological regions in the world, with many of the best-studied examples of hunter-gatherer and village-based societies. Research has been carried out in the region for well over a century, and during this time the Southwest has repeatedly stood at the forefront of the development of new archaeological methods and theories. Moreover, research in the Southwest has long been a key site of collaboration between archaeologists, ethnographers, historians, linguists, biological anthropologists, and indigenous intellectuals. This volume marks the most ambitious effort to take stock of the empirical evidence, theoretical orientations, and historical reconstructions of the American Southwest. Over seventy top scholars have joined forces to produce an unparalleled survey of state of archaeological knowledge in the region. Themed chapters on particular methods and theories are accompanied by comprehensive overviews of the culture histories of particular archaeological sequences, from the initial Paleoindian occupation, to the rise of a major ritual center in Chaco Canyon, to the onset of the Spanish and American imperial projects. The result is an essential volume for any researcher working in the region as well as any archaeologist looking to take the pulse of contemporary trends in this key research tradition.
Category: Social Science

Rethinking The Aztec Economy

Author : Deborah L. Nichols
ISBN : 9780816536337
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70.35 MB
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With its rich archaeological and historical record, the Aztec empire provides an intriguing opportunity to understand the dynamics and structure of early states and empires. Rethinking the Aztec Economy brings together leading scholars from multiple disciplines to thoroughly synthesize and examine the nature of goods and their movements across rural and urban landscapes in Mesoamerica. In so doing, they provide a new way of understanding society and economy in the Aztec empire. The volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 synthesizes our current understanding of the Aztec economy and singles out the topics of urbanism and provincial merchant activity for more detailed analysis. Part 2 brings new data and a new conceptual approach that applies insights from behavioral economics to Nahua and Aztec rituals and social objects. Contributors also discuss how high-value luxury goods, such as feather art, provide insights about both economic and sacred concepts of value in Aztec society. Part 3 reexamines the economy at the Aztec periphery. The volume concludes with a synthesis on the scale, integration, and nature of change in the Aztec imperial economy. Rethinking the Aztec Economy illustrates how superficially different kinds of social contexts were in fact integrated into a single society through the processes of a single economy. Using the world of goods as a crucial entry point, this volume advances scholarly understanding of life in the Aztec world. Contributors: Frances F. Berdan Laura Filloy Nadal Janine Gasco Colin Hirth Kenneth G. Hirth Sarah Imfeld María Olvido Moreno Guzmán Deborah L. Nichols Alan R. Sandstrom Pamela Effrein Sandstrom Michael E. Smith Barbara L. Stark Emily Umberger
Category: Social Science

Knowledge In Motion

Author : Andrew P. Roddick
ISBN : 9780816532605
Genre : Education
File Size : 46.27 MB
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"This book brings together archaeologists, historians, and cultural anthropologists to explore communities engaged in a range of practices, from spiritual mediums in east Africa, healers and fishermen in the Amazon, potters of the U.S. Southwest, and populations navigating climate change in the deep past, drawing on the growing interdisciplinary situated learning scholarship to explore processes of learning"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Education

Ten Thousand Years Of Inequality

Author : Timothy A. Kohler
ISBN : 9780816537747
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 59.29 MB
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"Field-defining research that will set the standard for understanding inequality in archaeological contexts"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Social Science

Victims Of Progress

Author : John H. Bodley
ISBN : 9781442226944
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 82.2 MB
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Victims of Progress, now in its sixth edition, offers a compelling account of how technology and development affect indigenous peoples throughout the world. Bodley’s expansive look at the struggle between small-scale indigenous societies, and the colonists and corporate developers who have infringed their territories reaches from 1800 into today. He examines major issues of intervention such as social engineering, economic development, self-determination, health and disease, global warming, and ecocide. Small-scale societies, Bodley convincingly demonstrates, have survived by organizing politically to defend their basic human rights. Providing a provocative context in which to think about civilization and its costs—shedding light on how we are all victims of progress—the sixth edition features expanded discussion of “uprising politics,” Tebtebba (a particularly active indigenous organization), and voluntary isolation. A wholly new chapter devotes full coverage to the costs of global warming to indigenous peoples in the Pacific and the Arctic. Finally, new appendixes guide readers to recent protest petitions as well as online resources and videos.
Category: Social Science

Epidemics And Enslavement

Author : Paul Kelton
ISBN : 9780803215573
Genre : History
File Size : 26.90 MB
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Tracing the pathology of early European encounters with Native peoples of the Southeast, this work concludes that, while indigenous peoples suffered from an array of ailments before contact, Natives had their most significant experience with new germs long after initial contacts in the sixteenth century.
Category: History

The Archaeology Of Infancy And Infant Death

Author : Eleanor Scott
ISBN : UOM:39015043410896
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89.31 MB
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A unique study of infancy and infant death that is wide-ranging and diverse in its approach. Eleanor Scott looks at theoretical issues, gender, women's power, childbirth, burial practices, infanticide and much more besides. The social and cultural attitudes to babies, infants and young adults within societies from the Neolithic to the Medieval period are explored, with examples from Britain, Europe, Scandinavia, the Americas, and Asia.
Category: Social Science

First Migrants

Author : Peter Bellwood
ISBN : 9781118325896
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25.84 MB
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The first publication to outline the complex global story of human migration and dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory. Utilizing archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence, Peter Bellwood traces the journeys of the earliest hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist migrants as critical elements in the evolution of human lifeways. The first volume to chart global human migration and population dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory, in all regions of the world An archaeological odyssey that details the initial spread of early humans out of Africa approximately two million years ago, through the Ice Ages, and down to the continental and island migrations of agricultural populations within the past 10,000 years Employs archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence to demonstrate how migration has always been a vital and complex element in explaining the evolution of the human species Outlines how significant migrations have affected population diversity in every region of the world Clarifies the importance of the development of agriculture as a migratory imperative in later prehistory Fully referenced with detailed maps throughout
Category: Social Science