BACKGROUND AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT LCA COMPENDIUM THE COMPLETE WORLD OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

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Background And Future Prospects In Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Walter Klöpffer
ISBN : 9789401786973
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55.33 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become the recognized instrument to assess the ecological burdens and human health impacts connected with the complete life cycle (creation, use, end-of-life) of products, processes and activities, enabling the assessor to model the entire system from which products are derived or in which processes and activities operate. This volume introduces the major new book series LCA Compendium - The Complete World of Life Cycle Assessment. In this volume, the main drivers in the development of LCA are explored. The volume also discusses strengths and limitations in LCA as well as challenges and gaps, thus offering an unbiased picture of the state-of-the-art and future of LCA.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Goal And Scope Definition In Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Mary Ann Curran
ISBN : 9789402408553
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77.22 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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This book describes the importance of the goal and scope phase for the entire LCA study. In this first phase of the LCA framework (ISO standardized), the purpose of the assessment is defined and decisions are made about the details of the industrial system being studied and how the study will be conducted. Selecting impact categories, category indicators, characterization models, and peer review is decided during goal and scope definition. The book provides practical guidance and an overview of LCIA methods available in LCA software. Although not specified in the ISO standards, Attributional LCA and Consequential LCA are presented in order to appropriately determine the goal and scope of an assessment. The book closes with the interconnection between goal and scope definition and the interpretation phase. Example goal and scope documents for attributional and consequential LCAs are provided in the annexes.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Special Types Of Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Matthias Finkbeiner
ISBN : 9789401776103
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.56 MB
Format : PDF
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This book presents specialised methods and tools built on classical LCA. In the first book-length overview, their importance for the further growth and application of LCA is demonstrated for some of the most prominent species of this emerging trend: Carbon footprinting; Water footprinting; Eco-efficiency assessment; Resource efficiency assessment; Input-output and hybrid LCA; Material flow analysis; Organizational LCA. Carbon footprinting was a huge driver for the market expansion of simplified LCA. The discussions led to an ample proliferation of different guidelines and standards including ISO/TS 14067 on Carbon Footprint of Product. Atsushi Inaba (Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan) and his eight co-authors provide an up-to-date status of Carbon Footprint of Products. The increasing relevance of Water Footprinting and the diverse methods were the drivers to develop the ISO 14046 as international water footprint standard. Markus Berger (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany), Stephan Pfister (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) and Masaharu Motoshita (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan) present a status of water resources and demands from a global and regional perspective. A core part is the discussion and comparison of the different water footprint methods, databases and tools. Peter Saling from BASF SE in Ludwigshafen, Germany, broadens the perspective towards Eco-efficiency Assessment. He describes the BASF-specific type of eco-efficiency analysis plus adaptions like the so-called SEEBALANCE and AgBalance applications. Laura Schneider, Vanessa Bach and Matthias Finkbeiner (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) address multi-dimensional LCA perspectives in the form of Resource Efficiency Assessment. Research needs and proposed methodological developments for abiotic resource efficiency assessment, and especially for the less developed area of biotic resources, are discussed.The fundamentals ofInput-output and Hybrid LCA are covered by Shinichiro Nakamura (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan) and Keisuke Nansai (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan). The concepts of environmentally extended IO, different types of hybrid IO-LCA and the waste model are introduced. David Laner and Helmut Rechberger (Vienna University of Technology, Austria) present the basic terms and procedures of Material Flow Analysismethodology. The combination of MFA and LCA is discussed as a promising approach for environmental decision support. Julia Martínez-Blanco (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; now at Inèdit, Barcelona, Spain), Atsushi Inaba (Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan) and Matthias Finkbeiner (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) introduce a recent development which could develop a new trend, namely the LCA of Organizations.
Category: Science

Life Cycle Analysis Of Nanoparticles

Author : Ashok Vaseashta
ISBN : 9781605950235
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 41.13 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Investigative tools for analyzing environmental nanoparticles with health impactsBasic theories and models of life cycle analysis applied to nanomaterialsConnects LCA, detection technologies and sustainability This book addresses the ways life cycle assessment (LCA) concepts can be applied to analyze the fate of nanoparticles in a variety of environmental and manufacturing settings. After introducing LCA theory and modeling concepts, the work discusses risks associated with carbon nanotubes, graphene, silver, fullerenes, iron oxides and other particles generated by manufacturing or medical diagnostics. Chapters in the text discuss biomolecules and the application of in vivo biosensors. Also covered are fate analysis, risk assessment, toxicology and nanopathology with a focus on human health and disease.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Sustainable Engineering

Author : Catherine Mulligan
ISBN : 9780429643132
Genre : Nature
File Size : 36.46 MB
Format : PDF
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Sustainable Engineering: Principles and Implementation provides a comprehensive overview of the interdisciplinary field of sustainability as it applies to engineering and methods for implementation of sustainable practices. Due to increasing constraints on resources and on the environment and effects of climate change, engineers are being faced with new challenges. While it is generally believed that the concepts of sustainable design must be adhered to so that future generations may be protected, the execution and practice of these concepts are very difficult. It is therefore the focus of this book to give both a conceptual understanding as well as practical skills to apply sustainable engineering principles to engineering design. This book introduces relevant theory, principles, and ethical expectations for engineers, presents concepts related to industrial ecology, green engineering, and eco-design, and details frameworks that indicate the challenges and constraints of applying sustainable development principles. It describes the tools, protocols, and guidelines that are currently available through case studies and examples from around the world. The book is designed to be used by undergraduate and graduate students in any engineering program (with particular emphasis on civil, environmental and chemical engineering) and other programs in which sustainability is taught, in addition to practicing scientists and engineers and all others concerned with the sustainability of products, projects and processes. Specific Features: Discusses sources of contaminants and their impact on the environment Addresses sustainable assessment techniques, policies, protocols and guidelines Describes new tools and technologies for achieving sustainable engineering Includes social and economic sustainability dimensions Offers case studies demonstrating implementation of sustainable engineering practices
Category: Nature

Government Reports Annual Index

Author :
ISBN : MINN:30000003749367
Genre : Government reports announcements & index
File Size : 72.85 MB
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Category: Government reports announcements & index