BACKGROUND AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT LCA COMPENDIUM THE COMPLETE WORLD OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

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Background And Future Prospects In Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Walter Klöpffer
ISBN : 9789401786973
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30.84 MB
Format : PDF
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become the recognized instrument to assess the ecological burdens and human health impacts connected with the complete life cycle (creation, use, end-of-life) of products, processes and activities, enabling the assessor to model the entire system from which products are derived or in which processes and activities operate. This volume introduces the major new book series LCA Compendium - The Complete World of Life Cycle Assessment. In this volume, the main drivers in the development of LCA are explored. The volume also discusses strengths and limitations in LCA as well as challenges and gaps, thus offering an unbiased picture of the state-of-the-art and future of LCA.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Goal And Scope Definition In Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Mary Ann Curran
ISBN : 9789402408553
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87.25 MB
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This book describes the importance of the goal and scope phase for the entire LCA study. In this first phase of the LCA framework (ISO standardized), the purpose of the assessment is defined and decisions are made about the details of the industrial system being studied and how the study will be conducted. Selecting impact categories, category indicators, characterization models, and peer review is decided during goal and scope definition. The book provides practical guidance and an overview of LCIA methods available in LCA software. Although not specified in the ISO standards, Attributional LCA and Consequential LCA are presented in order to appropriately determine the goal and scope of an assessment. The book closes with the interconnection between goal and scope definition and the interpretation phase. Example goal and scope documents for attributional and consequential LCAs are provided in the annexes.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Special Types Of Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Matthias Finkbeiner
ISBN : 9789401776103
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.19 MB
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This book presents specialised methods and tools built on classical LCA. In the first book-length overview, their importance for the further growth and application of LCA is demonstrated for some of the most prominent species of this emerging trend: Carbon footprinting; Water footprinting; Eco-efficiency assessment; Resource efficiency assessment; Input-output and hybrid LCA; Material flow analysis; Organizational LCA. Carbon footprinting was a huge driver for the market expansion of simplified LCA. The discussions led to an ample proliferation of different guidelines and standards including ISO/TS 14067 on Carbon Footprint of Product. Atsushi Inaba (Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan) and his eight co-authors provide an up-to-date status of Carbon Footprint of Products. The increasing relevance of Water Footprinting and the diverse methods were the drivers to develop the ISO 14046 as international water footprint standard. Markus Berger (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany), Stephan Pfister (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) and Masaharu Motoshita (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan) present a status of water resources and demands from a global and regional perspective. A core part is the discussion and comparison of the different water footprint methods, databases and tools. Peter Saling from BASF SE in Ludwigshafen, Germany, broadens the perspective towards Eco-efficiency Assessment. He describes the BASF-specific type of eco-efficiency analysis plus adaptions like the so-called SEEBALANCE and AgBalance applications. Laura Schneider, Vanessa Bach and Matthias Finkbeiner (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) address multi-dimensional LCA perspectives in the form of Resource Efficiency Assessment. Research needs and proposed methodological developments for abiotic resource efficiency assessment, and especially for the less developed area of biotic resources, are discussed.The fundamentals ofInput-output and Hybrid LCA are covered by Shinichiro Nakamura (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan) and Keisuke Nansai (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan). The concepts of environmentally extended IO, different types of hybrid IO-LCA and the waste model are introduced. David Laner and Helmut Rechberger (Vienna University of Technology, Austria) present the basic terms and procedures of Material Flow Analysismethodology. The combination of MFA and LCA is discussed as a promising approach for environmental decision support. Julia Martínez-Blanco (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; now at Inèdit, Barcelona, Spain), Atsushi Inaba (Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan) and Matthias Finkbeiner (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) introduce a recent development which could develop a new trend, namely the LCA of Organizations.
Category: Science

Life Cycle Analysis Of Nanoparticles

Author : Ashok Vaseashta
ISBN : 9781605950235
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 35.51 MB
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Investigative tools for analyzing environmental nanoparticles with health impactsBasic theories and models of life cycle analysis applied to nanomaterialsConnects LCA, detection technologies and sustainability This book addresses the ways life cycle assessment (LCA) concepts can be applied to analyze the fate of nanoparticles in a variety of environmental and manufacturing settings. After introducing LCA theory and modeling concepts, the work discusses risks associated with carbon nanotubes, graphene, silver, fullerenes, iron oxides and other particles generated by manufacturing or medical diagnostics. Chapters in the text discuss biomolecules and the application of in vivo biosensors. Also covered are fate analysis, risk assessment, toxicology and nanopathology with a focus on human health and disease.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Author : Michael Z. Hauschild
ISBN : 9789401797443
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77.61 MB
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This book offers a detailed presentation of the principles and practice of life cycle impact assessment. As a volume of the LCA compendium, the book is structured according to the LCIA framework developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)passing through the phases of definition or selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models (Classification): calculation of category indicator results (Characterisation); calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information (Normalisation); and converting indicator results of different impact categories by using numerical factors based on value-choices (Weighting). Chapter one offers a historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment and presents the boundary conditions and the general principles and constraints of characterisation modelling in LCA. The second chapter outlines the considerations underlying the selection of impact categories and the classification or assignment of inventory flows into these categories. Chapters three through thirteen exploreall the impact categories that are commonly included in LCIA, discussing the characteristics of each followed by a review of midpoint and endpoint characterisation methods, metrics, uncertainties and new developments, and a discussion of research needs. Chapter-length treatment is accorded to Climate Change; Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; Human Toxicity; Particulate Matter Formation; Photochemical Ozone Formation; Ecotoxicity; Acidification; Eutrophication; Land Use; Water Use; and Abiotic Resource Use. The final two chapters map out the optional LCIA steps of Normalisation and Weighting.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Ralph E Horne
ISBN : 9780643099203
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49.22 MB
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has developed in Australia over the last 20 years into a technique for systematically identifying the resource flows and environmental impacts associated with the provision of products and services. Interest in LCA has accelerated alongside growing demand to assess and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across different manufacturing and service sectors. Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the reflective practice of LCA, and provides critical insight into the technique and how it can be used as a problem-solving tool. It describes the distinctive strengths and limitations of LCA, with an emphasis on practice in Australia, as well as the application of LCA in waste management, the built environment, water and agriculture. Supported by examples and case studies, each chapter investigates contemporary challenges for environmental assessment and performance improvement in these key sectors. LCA methodologies are compared to the emerging climate change mitigation policy and practice techniques, and the uptake of ‘quick’ LCA and management tools are considered in the light of current and changing environmental agendas. The authors also debate the future prospects for LCA technique and applications.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Life Cycle Management

Author : Guido Sonnemann
ISBN : 9789401772211
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.50 MB
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This book provides insight into the Life Cycle Management (LCM) concept and the progress in its implementation. LCM is a management concept applied in industrial and service sectors to improve products and services, while enhancing the overall sustainability performance of business and its value chains. In this regard, LCM is an opportunity to differentiate through sustainability performance on the market place, working with all departments of a company such as research and development, procurement and marketing, and to enhance the collaboration with stakeholders along a company’s value chain. LCM is used beyond short-term business success and aims at long-term achievements by minimizing environmental and socio-economic burden, while maximizing economic and social value.
Category: Science

Green And Sustainable Manufacturing Of Advanced Material

Author : Mrityunjay Singh
ISBN : 9780124115262
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38.21 MB
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Sustainable development is a globally recognized mandate and it includes green or environment-friendly manufacturing practices. Such practices orchestrate with the self-healing and self-replenishing capability of natural ecosystems. Green manufacturing encompasses synthesis, processing, fabrication, and process optimization, but also testing, performance evaluation and reliability. The book shall serve as a comprehensive and authoritative resource on sustainable manufacturing of ceramics, metals and their composites. It is designed to capture the diversity and unity of methods and approaches to materials processing, manufacturing, testing and evaluation across disciplines and length scales. Each chapter incorporates in-depth technical information without compromising the delicate link between factual data and fundamental concepts or between theory and practice. Green and sustainable materials processing and manufacturing is designed as a key enabler of sustainable development. A one-stop compendium of new research and technology of green manufacturing of metals, ceramics and their composites In-depth cutting-edge treatment of synthesis, processing, fabrication, process optimization, testing, performance evaluation and reliability which are of critical importance to green manufacturing Stimulates fresh thinking and exchange of ideas and information on approaches to green materials processing across disciplines
Category: Medical

Compendium Of Hydrogen Energy

Author : Michael Ball
ISBN : 9781782423867
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60.50 MB
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Compendium of Hydrogen Energy Volume 4: Hydrogen Use, Safety and the Hydrogen Economy focuses on the uses of hydrogen. As many experts believe the hydrogen economy will, at some point, replace the fossil fuel economy as the primary source of the world’s energy, this book investigates the uses of this energy, from transport, to stationary and portable applications, with final sections discussing the difficulties and possibilities of the widespread adoption of the hydrogen economy. Written by both leading academics in the fields of sustainable energy and experts from the world of industry Part of a very comprehensive compendium which across four volumes looks at the entirety of the hydrogen energy economy Covers a wide array of hydrogen uses, and details safety tactics, hydrogen applications in transport, and the hydrogen economy as a whole
Category: Technology & Engineering

Aluminum Recycling And Processing For Energy Conservation And Sustainability

Author : John A. S. Green
ISBN : 9781615030576
Genre : TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING
File Size : 51.17 MB
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Energy and sustainability are critical factors for economic development, and this comprehensive reference provides a detailed overview and fundamental analysis of sustainability issues associated with the aluminum industry. This publication brings together articles on the concepts and application of life-cycle assessments that benchmark aluminum-industry efforts towards sustainable development. Chapters provide energy-use data for primary and secondary aluminum production and processing along with future energy saving opportunities in aluminum processing. Life-cycle assessments provide basic, factual, information on the modeling of material flow in the industry, its products, and most importantly energy savings involved with recycling. Coverage includes various scrap sorting technologies and the positive impact of lightweight aluminum in transportation and infrastructure.
Category: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING