ASPECTS OF EXPLOSIVES DETECTION

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Aspects Of Explosives Detection

Author : Maurice Marshall
ISBN : 0080923143
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.33 MB
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Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection
Category: Science

K9 Explosive Detection

Author : Ron Mistafa
ISBN : 9781550591613
Genre : Pets
File Size : 58.95 MB
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Conduct efficient, effective and safe searches in any setting K9 Explosive Detection is for detector dog trainers and police departments looking for alternative training ideas or for ways to set up their own course training standards. Ron Mistafa examines some of the major training systems in use by police departments across North America, and he offers a system that combines the most effective elements of each one. This manual focuses on the how-to aspects of explosive detector dog (EDD) training. A gradual build-up of learning experiences and ongoing problem solving techniques produce more confident EDD teams. Ron also examines US and Canadian laws governing possession of explosive materials and devices, provides tips on working with other police specialty units, and explains how to involve non-police personnel at airports in EDD training.
Category: Pets

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques Of Explosives

Author : Jehuda Yinon
ISBN : 0080545203
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 33.79 MB
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The detection of hidden explosives has become an issue of utmost importance in recent years. While terrorism is not new to the international community, recent terrorist attacks have raised the issue of detection of explosives and have generated a great demand for rapid, sensitive and reliable methods for detecting hidden explosives. Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives covers recent advances in this area of research including vapor and trace detection techniques (chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, electrochemical methods and micromechanical sensors, such as microcantilevers) and bulk detection techniques (neutron techniques, nuclear quadrupole resonance, x-ray diffraction imaging, millimeter-wave imaging, terahertz imaging and laser techniques). This book will be of interest to any scientists involved in the design and application of security screening technologies including new sensors and detecting devices which will prevent the smuggling of bombs and explosives. * Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques * Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development * Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives
Category: Health & Fitness

Explosives Detection Using Magnetic And Nuclear Resonance Techniques

Author : Jacques Fraissard
ISBN : 9789048130627
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86.64 MB
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Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to build a multichannel system necessary to cover a wide range of target substances. Moreover, substances fully screened by metallic enclosures, etc. are difficult to detect. A workshop was held at St Petersburg in July 2008 in an attempt to solve these problems and make NQR the universal technique for the detection of bombs regardless of type. This book presents the essentials of the papers given there.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Vapour And Trace Detection Of Explosives For Anti Terrorism Purposes

Author : M. Krausa
ISBN : 9781402027161
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.39 MB
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The fast detection of explosives from the vapor phase would be one way to enhance the protection of society against terrorist attacks. Up to now the problem of detection of explosives, especially the location of explosives whether at large areas e. g. station halls, theaters or hidden in cars, aircraft cargo, baggage or explosives hidden in crowds e. g. suicide bombers or bombs in bags has not been solved. Smelling of explosives like dogs do seems to be a valuable tool for a security chain. In general different strategies can be adopt to the basic problem of explosive detection: • bulk detection • vapor detection Normally meetings cover both aspects and applications of the detection. Even though both methods might fulfill special aspects of a general security chain the underlying scientific questions differ strongly. Because of that the discussions of the scientists and practitioners from the different main directions are sometimes only less specific. Therefore the NATO Advisory Panel in Security-Related Civil Science and Technology proposed a small series of NATO ARW's which focuses on the different scientific aspects of explosives detection methods. This book is based on material presented at the first NATO ARW of this series in Moscow which covered the topic: Vapor and trace detection of explosives. The second ARW was held in St. Petersburg and treated the topic Bulk detection methods. The third workshop was held in Warwick and focused on electronic noses which cover a somewhat different aspect of vapor detection.
Category: Science

Existing And Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309166039
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 88.43 MB
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Electronic Noses Sensors For The Detection Of Explosives

Author : J. Gardner
ISBN : 9781402028007
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.20 MB
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This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.
Category: Science

The Analysis Of Explosives

Author : Jehuda Yinon
ISBN : 9781483140056
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 41.21 MB
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The Analysis of Explosives surveys the principles of the various analytical methods, describes how these methods are used for the analysis of explosives, and reviews the major analytical work carried out in this field. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with the classification of explosives. Subsequent chapters discuss the different methods for the analysis of explosives. The detection and identification of explosive residues and hidden explosives are also explained. This monograph will be useful as a reference book for chemists in analytical and forensic laboratories, as well as a textbook for graduate students in analytical chemistry and forensic sciences.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Forensic And Environmental Detection Of Explosives

Author : Jehuda Yinon
ISBN : 0471983713
Genre : Law
File Size : 54.95 MB
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Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives is the first comprehensive book on the detection of explosives. It combines the two main fields of application: ∗ Forensic detection of explosives – the detection of hidden explosives in airfreight, luggage, vehicles, and on suspects. ∗ Environmental detection of explosives – detecting on–site explosives in soil and water of contaminated areas and the detection of landmines. Dr Jehuda Yinon is a world renowned expert on the analysis of explosives and has served as consulting expert during the Oklahoma bombing trial, where his previous book Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives was quoted by both the prosecution and defense experts. This new book complements the author′s previous book on the analysis of explosives. It includes the following features: ∗ Classifications of explosives ∗ Explanations of the basic terms related to the detection of explosives ∗ Vapor detection methods ∗ Probing radiation methods ∗ Tagging of explosives ∗ Systems integration and performance testing ∗ Detection of explosives in contaminated areas ∗ Detection of landmines. This book is an ideal reference book for those working in forensic and law enforcement agencies concerned with the detection of hidden explosives, as well as for environmental scientists dealing with explosives decontamination. The book is also recommended as a text book for graduate students in analytical, environmental and forensic science.
Category: Law