ARISTOTLE S FIRST PRINCIPLES

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First Principles Substance And Action

Author : Fernando Inciarte Armiñán
ISBN : 3487129876
Genre : Philosophy
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Fernando Inciarte (1929-2000) was Professor at the University of Munster (Germany). At his death he left the manuscript of the present book behind him. This book deals mainly withe the relevance of the first principles of the theory of substance as well as, to a lesser extent, of that of action in Aristotle. According to Aristotle, the negation of the validity of the first principles leads astray into an inordinate chaos, in which every meaning is connected in the same way to every different meaning. Therefore, many philosophers consider that the acceptance of the unrestricted validity of the first principles is the hallmark of realism as opposed to anti-realism or idealism. The author gives an overview of the entire Aristotelian argument in defence of the first principles, particularly "the justification or transcendental deduction" of the category of substance and hence of the fundamental categorical difference between substance and accident in Metaphysics IV. In the process of defending the validity of the first principles by exposing the conditions of the possibility of language, communication and argumentaion, one has to accept not only meanings or categories which are sharply distinct from each other but, even more important, the basic categorical distinction between substance and accidens praedicamentale.
Category: Philosophy

From Puzzles To Principles

Author : May Sim
ISBN : 0739100297
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 57.78 MB
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Scholars of classical philosophy have long disputed whether Aristotle was a dialectical thinker. Most agree that Aristotle contrasts dialectical reasoning with demonstrative reasoning, where the former reasons from generally accepted opinions and the latter reasons from the true and primary. Starting with a grasp on truth, demonstration never relinquishes it. Starting with opinion, how could dialectical reasoning ever reach truth, much less the truth about first principles? Is dialectic then an exercise that reiterates the prejudices of one's times and at best allows one to persuade others by appealing to these prejudices, or is it the royal road to first principles and philosophical wisdom? In From Puzzles to Principles? May Sim gathers experts to argue both these positions and offer a variety of interpretive possibilities. The contributors' thoughtful reflections on the nature and limits of dialectic should play a crucial role in Aristotelian scholarship.
Category: Philosophy

Teleology First Principles And Scientific Method In Aristotle S Biology

Author : Allan Gotthelf
ISBN : 9780199287956
Genre : History
File Size : 70.78 MB
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This volume draws together Allan Gotthelf's pioneering work on Aristotle's biology. He examines Aristotle's natural teleology, the axiomatic structure of biological explanation, and the reliance on scientifically organized data in the three great works with which Aristotle laid the foundations of biological science.
Category: History

Aristotle S First Principles

Author : Terence Irwin
ISBN : 9780198242901
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 62.68 MB
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Aristotle's reliance on dialectic as a method of philosophy appears to conflict with his metaphysical realist view of his conclusions. This book explores Aristotle's philosophical method and the merits of his conclusions, and shows how he defends dialectic against the objection that it cannot justify a metaphysical realist's claims. The author does not presuppose extensive previous acquaintance with Aristotle. Greek texts are translated, and Greek words transliterated.
Category: Philosophy

Knowledge And Demonstration

Author : Orna Harari
ISBN : 1402027877
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.37 MB
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This book examines a fundamental problem in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics: what is the role of syllogistic logic in the theory of demonstrative knowledge? The answer to this question is sought in Aristotle’s metaphysical theory and his conception of substance. This interpretation challenges the traditional interpretation that approaches Aristotle’s theory of demonstration from the standpoint of scientific practice. It is argued, in this book, that the Posterior Analytics’ main objective is to articulate the notion of knowledge, viewed here as a conceptualisation, rather than analysing the structure and methods of scientific explorations. The original interpretation offered in this book sheds fresh light on issues, such as the conceptual difference between Aristotle’s logic and modern logic, the relationship between Aristotle’s logic and Greek mathematics, and the differences between the Aristotelian and modern notions of knowledge and proof. In attempting to present a comprehensive interpretation of one of the most difficult works in the Aristotelian corpus, this book is of major importance first and foremost for Aristotelian scholars and historians of Greek philosophy; the historical character of the analysis offered here makes it relevant also to historians of Greek mathematics, historians of logic, historians of science in general, and philosophers of sciences.
Category: Philosophy

Analysis And Science In Aristotle

Author : Patrick Hugh Byrne
ISBN : 0791433218
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 70.82 MB
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Presents a new interpretation of Aristotle's Analytics (the Prior and Posterior Analytics) as a unified whole, and argues that to "loose up"or solve -- rather than to reduce or break up -- is the principle meaning which best characterizes the Analytics. Offering a new interpretation of Aristotle's Analytics (the Prior and Posterior Analytics) as a unified whole, Patrick H. Byrne argues that a non-deductive form of ancient mathematical analysis influenced Aristotle's thinking. Reading the Analytics with this perspective in mind sheds new light on Aristotle's theories of the syllogism, demonstration, and the principles of science. The book begins with a brief survey of ancient geometrical analysis and an investigation of Aristotle's uses of the Greek term, analuein. Byrne argues that "to loose up" or solve -- rather than to reduce or break up -- is the principal meaning which best characterizes Aristotle's Analytics. Extending this line of reasoning, he argues that for Aristotle scientific analysis commonly begins with knowledge of a "mere fact" (a conclusion) and seeks a rigorous demonstration which expresses knowledge of the "reasoned fact". Moreover, genuine analysis of a fact into a reasoned fact cannot be accomplished unless the premises of demonstrations are themselves reasoned facts. Hence the processes which yield the immediate principles (especially definitions) are next investigated through detailed examinations of key examples which Aristotle provides.
Category: Philosophy

The Ends Of The Moral Virtues And The First Principles Of Practical Reason In Thomas Aquinas

Author : Farrell Dominic
ISBN : 9788878392304
Genre : Philosophy
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How do ordinary people come to know what is virtuous? Do our moral convictions merely reflect our cultural background and upbringing, or do we somehow understand what is virtuous by ourselves and in a failsafe manner? Thomas Aquinas believes that we do. In his view practical reason is guided by our natural knowledge of the end of the moral virtues. The ends of the moral virtues pre-exist in practical reason (Summa theologiae II-II.47.6-7). This book delves into this argument, its historical background, and its implications for Aquinas' account of the cognitive foundations of deliberation. For Thomas, the naturally known overarching ends of the moral virtues and human life are love for God, self and others. They are first principles of practical reason. This order of love determines the content, logic and workings of natural law. In this way, Aquinas not only develops a compelling account of natural law, but also bridges the gap between natural law and virtue. The fundamental content of natural law is tied up with the shape and structure of the moral virtues. Aquinas' innovative wedding of Aristotelian and Augustinian accounts of deliberation constitutes an important chapter within mediaeval moral philosophy. It can also contribute much to contemporary reflection on practical reason, natural law and virtue ethics.
Category: Philosophy

Theophrastus On First Principles

Author : Théophraste
ISBN : 9789004179035
Genre : Literary Criticism
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Simultaneous critical editions based on all available evidence, with an introduction, English translations, and commentaries of the Greek text and a medieval Arabic translation of Theophrastus s "On First Principles" ( metaphysics ), together with a methodological excursus on Graeco-Arabic editorial technique and normative glossary.
Category: Literary Criticism