Ancient Teotihuacan

Author : George L. Cowgill
ISBN : 9780521870337
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.63 MB
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Long before the Aztecs and 800 miles from Classic Maya centers, Teotihuacan was part of a broad Mesoamerican tradition but had a distinctive personality. This book synthesizes a century of research, including recent finds, and covers the lives of commoners as well as elites.
Category: Social Science

Teotihuacan

Author : Matthew Robb
ISBN : 9780520296558
Genre : Art
File Size : 40.52 MB
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Founded in the first century BCE near a set of natural springs in an otherwise dry northeastern corner of the Valley of Mexico, the ancient metropolis of Teotihuacan was on a symbolic level a city of elements. With a multiethnic population of perhaps one hundred thousand, at its peak in 400 CE, it was the cultural, political, economic, and religious center of ancient Mesoamerica. A devastating fire in the city center led to a rapid decline after the middle of the sixth century, but Teotihuacan was never completely abandoned or forgotten; the Aztecs revered the city and its monuments, giving many of them the names we still use today. Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire examines new discoveries from the three main pyramids at the site—the Sun Pyramid, the Moon Pyramid, and, at the center of the Ciudadela complex, the Feathered Serpent Pyramid—which have fundamentally changed our understanding of the city’s history. With illustrations of the major objects from Mexico City’s Museo Nacional de Antropología and from the museums and storage facilities of the Zona de Monumentos Arqueológicos de Teotihuacan, along with selected works from US and European collections, the catalogue examines these cultural artifacts to understand the roles that offerings of objects and programs of monumental sculpture and murals throughout the city played in the lives of Teotihuacan’s citizens. Published in association with the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Exhibition dates: de Young, San Francisco, September 30, 2017–February 11, 2018 Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), March–June 2018
Category: Art

Feast Famine Or Fighting

Author : Richard J. Chacon
ISBN : 9783319484020
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.84 MB
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The advent of social complexity has been a longstanding debate among social scientists. Existing theories and approaches involving the origins of social complexity include environmental circumscription, population growth, technology transfers, prestige-based and interpersonal-group competition, organized conflict, perennial wartime leadership, wealth finance, opportunistic leadership, climatological change, transport and trade monopolies, resource circumscription, surplus and redistribution, ideological imperialism, and the consideration of individual agency. However, recent approaches such as the inclusion of bioarchaeological perspectives, prospection methods, systematically-investigated archaeological sites along with emerging technologies are necessarily transforming our understanding of socio-cultural evolutionary processes. In short, many pre-existing ways of explaining the origins and development of social complexity are being reassessed. Ultimately, the contributors to this edited volume challenge the status quo regarding how and why social complexity arose by providing revolutionary new understandings of social inequality and socio-political evolution.
Category: Social Science

Urbanism In The Preindustrial World

Author : Glenn Storey
ISBN : 9780817352462
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54.23 MB
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A baseline study of the growth of preindustrial cities worldwide. This work employs a subset of preindustrial cities on many continents to answer questions archaeologists grapple with concerning the populating and growth of cities before industrialization. It further explores how scholars differently conceive and execute their research on the population of cities. The subject cities are in Greece, Mesoamerica, the Andes, Italy, Egypt, Africa, United States, Denmark, and China. This broad sample provides a useful framework for answers to such questions as “Why did people agglomerate into cities?” and “What population size and what age of endurance constitute a city?” The study covers more than population magnitude and population makeup, the two major frameworks of urban demography. The contributors combine their archaeological and historical expertise to reveal commonalities, as well as theoretical extrapolations and methodological approaches, at work here and outside the sample. Urbanism in the Preindustrial World is a unique study revealing the variety of factors involved in the coalescing and dispersal of populations in preindustrial times.
Category: Social Science

Urbanization And Religion In Ancient Central Mexico

Author : David M. Carballo
ISBN : 9780190251062
Genre :
File Size : 71.65 MB
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"Urbanization and Religion in Ancient Central Mexico examines the ways in which urbanization and religion intersected in pre-Columbian central Mexico, with a primary focus on the later Formative period and the transition to the Classic period. The major societal transformations of this interval occurred approximately two-thousand years ago and over a millennium before Mexico's best known early civilization, the Aztecs. David M. Carballo presents a synthesis of data from regional archaeological projects and key sites such as Teotihuacan and Cuicuilco, while relying on the author's own excavations at the site of La Laguna as the central case study. A principal argument is that cities and states developed hand in hand with elements of a religious tradition of remarkable endurance and that these processes were fundamentally entangled. Prevalent religious beliefs and ritual practices created a cultural logic for urbanism, and as populations urbanized they became socially integrated and differentiated following this logic. Nevertheless, religion was used differently over time and by groups and individuals across the spectra of urbanity and social status. This book calls for a materially informed history of religion, with the temporal depth that archaeology can provide, and an archaeology of cities that considers religion seriously as a generative force in societal change"--
Category:

Ancient Complex Societies

Author : Jennifer C. Ross
ISBN : 9781315305615
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58.37 MB
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Ancient Complex Societies examines the archaeological evidence for the rise and functioning of politically and socially “complex” cultures in antiquity. Particular focus is given to civilizations exhibiting positions of leadership, social and administrative hierarchies, emerging and already developed complex religious systems, and economic differentiation. Case studies are drawn from around the globe, including Asia, the Mediterranean region, and the American continents. Using case studies from Africa, Polynesia, and North America, discussion is dedicated to identifying what “complex” means and when it should be applied to ancient systems. Each chapter attempts to not only explore the sociopolitical and economic elements of ancient civilizations, but to also present an overview of what life was like for the later population within each system, sometimes drilling down to individual people living their daily lives. Throughout the chapters, the authors address problems with the idea of complexity, the incomparability of cultures, and the inconsistency of archaeological and historical evidence in reconstructing ancient cultures.
Category: Social Science

Prehispanic Domestic Units In Western Mesoamerica

Author : Robert S. Santley
ISBN : 0849388988
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71.66 MB
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Prehispanic Domestic Units in Western Mesoamerica presents different analytical approaches for interpreting household composition and cultural site formation processes in prehispanic western Mesoamerica. Archaelogical data collected using both stratigraphic and reconnaisance methods are combined with and interpreted using a combination of ethnohistoric, ethnographic, and ethnoarchaeological information. The result is a richer and more complete picture of prehispanic household structure than any single analytic approach could produce on its own. The book is organized into several sections based on common theme and geographic area. The first three chapters provide a broad discussion of conceptual and methodological difficulties that archaeologists must resolve in the study of prehispanic households. Subsequent chapters present case studies which examine households from two areas of western Mesoamerica: the Central Mexican highlands and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Eight case studies from the Central Mexican highlands provide a longitudinal perspective on changing household composition. Four of these examine households during the late Formative, Classic, Epiclassic, and Early Postclassic periods (650 B.C.-A.D. 1200), while four others focus specifically on household structure during the century immediately preceding the Spanish Conquest. Two additional case studies provide comparative information on household organization in the South Gulf Coast region during the Classic period. Prehispanic Domestic Units in Western Mesoamerica: Studies of the Household, Compound, and Residence will be an excellent reference for all anthropologists and archaeologists interested in prehispanic western Mesoamerica.
Category: Social Science

Mesoamerican Plazas

Author : Kenichiro Tsukamoto
ISBN : 9780816598793
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 52.61 MB
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Until now, archaeological and historical studies of Mesoamerican plazas have been scarce compared to studies of the surrounding monumental architecture such as pyramidal temples and palaces. Many scholars have assumed that ancient Mesoamericans invested their labor, wealth, and symbolic value in pyramids and other prominent buildings, viewing plazas as by-products of these buildings. Even when researchers have recognized the potential significance of plazas, they have thought that plazas as vacant spaces could offer few clues about their cultural and political roles. Mesoamerican Plazas challenges both of these assumptions. The primary question that has motivated the contributors is how Mesoamerican plazas became arenas for the creation and negotiation of social relations and values in a community. The thirteen contributions stress the significance of interplay between power relations and embodied practices set in specific historical and material settings, as outlined by practice theory and performance theory. This approach allows the contributors to explore broader anthropological issues, such as the negotiation of power relations, community making, and the constitution of political authorities. Overall, the contributions establish that physical interactions among people in communal events were not the outcomes of political machinations held behind the scenes, but were the actual political processes through which people created, negotiated, and subverted social realities. If so, spacious plazas that were arguably designed for interactions among a large number of individuals must have also provided critical arenas for the constitution and transformation of society.
Category: Social Science

The Ancient Maya Of Mexico

Author : Geoffrey E. Braswell
ISBN : 9781317543602
Genre : History
File Size : 42.54 MB
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The archaeological sites of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula are among the most visited ancient cities of the Americas. Archaeologists have recently made great advances in our understanding of the social and political milieu of the northern Maya lowlands. However, such advances have been under-represented in both scholarly and popular literature until now. 'The Ancient Maya of Mexico' presents the results of new and important archaeological, epigraphic, and art historical research in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Campeche, and Quintana Roo. Ranging across the Middle Preclassic to the Modern periods, the volume explores how new archaeological data has transformed our understanding of Maya history. 'The Ancient Maya of Mexico' will be invaluable to students and scholars of archaeology and anthropology, and all those interested in the society, rituals and economic organisation of the Maya region.
Category: History

Side By Side Survey

Author : Susan Alcock
ISBN : 9781785704765
Genre : History
File Size : 75.91 MB
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Twenty years ago one of the editors of this volume, John Cherry of the University of Michigan, looked forward to a day when the 'Frogs round the Pond' (active intensive survey projects working around the Mediterranean) could produce real insights into the development of human societies by comparing and synthesizing the data they had collected. Despite the theoretical advances in survey methodology that have been discussed and implemented since that date, few scholars (with the exception of Sue Alcock, the other editor - also at Michigan) have attempted to use survey data to answer the real questions social historians have been asking. In this volume a number of prominent scholars re-commit to the original goal of intensive survey projects and discuss what original insights over twenty years of survey work have brought to our understanding of the Mediterranean world. Contents: Introduction (Susan E. Alcock and John F. Cherry); Intraregional and interregional comparison of occupation histories in three Italian regions; the RPC project (Peter Attema and Martijn van Leusen); A comparative perspective on settlement pattern and population change in Mesoamerican and Mediterranean civilizations (Richard E. Blanton); Site by site: Combining survey and excavation data to chart patterns of socio-political change in Bronze Age Crete (Tim Cunningham and Jan Driessen); Are the landscapes of Greek prehistory hidden? A comparative approach (Jack L. Davis); Accounting for ARS: fineware and sites in Sicily and Africa (Elizabeth Fentress, Sergio Fontana, Robert Bruce Hitchner, and Philip Perkins); Mapping and manuring: can we compare sherd density figures? (Michael Given); Mapping the Roman world: the contribution of field survey data (David Mattingly and Rob Witcher); Demography and survey (Robin Osborne); Problems and possibilities in comparative survey: a North African perspective (David L. Stone); Sample size matters! The paradox of global trends and local surveys (Nicola Terrenato); Side-by-Side and Back-to-Front: Exploring intra-regional Latitudinal and Longitudinal comparability in survey data. Three case studies from Metaponto, Southern Italy (Stephen Thompson); Solving the puzzle of the archaeological labyrinth: time perspectivism in Mediterranean surface archaeology (LuAnn Wandsnider); From nucleation to dispersal: trends in settlement pattern in the northern Fertile Crescent (T. J. Wilkinson, Jason Ur, and Jesse Casana); Comparative settlement patterns during the Bronze Age in the northeastern Peloponnesos (James C. Wright); Appendix. Internet resources for Mediterranean regional survey projects: a preliminary listing (Jennifer Gates, Susan E. Alcock, and John F. Cherry).
Category: History