ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIONUCLIDES

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Analysis Of Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Pavel Povinec
ISBN : 0080553370
Genre : Science
File Size : 65.5 MB
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The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.
Category: Science

Radiological Risk Assessment And Environmental Analysis

Author : John E. Till
ISBN : 0199722919
Genre : Science
File Size : 32.12 MB
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Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides examples and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.
Category: Science

Handbook Of Radioactivity Analysis

Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
ISBN : 9780323137881
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.78 MB
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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is written by experts in the measurement of radioactivity. The book describes the broad scope of analytical methods available and instructs the reader on how to select the proper technique. It is intended as a practical manual for research which requires the accurate measurement of radioactivity at all levels, from the low levels encountered in the environment to the high levels measured in radioisotope research. This book contains sample preparation procedures, recommendations on steps to follow, necessary calculations, computer controlled analysis, and high sample throughput techniques. Each chapter includes practical techniques for application to nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, environmental analysis, weapons disarmament, and assays required for research in biomedicine and agriculture. The fundamentals of radioactivity properties, radionuclide decay, and methods of detection are included to provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures described in the book. Therefore, the Handbook can also be used as a teaching text. Key Features * Includes sample preparation techniques for matrices such as soil, air, plant, water, animal tissue, and surface swipes * Provides procedures and guidelines for the analysis of commonly encountered na
Category: Science

Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Klaus Froehlich
ISBN : 0080913296
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.13 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers
Category: Science

Radionuclides In The Environment

Author : David A. Atwood
ISBN : 9781118632697
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.49 MB
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Nuclear energy is the one energy source that could meet the world'sgrowing energy needs and provide a smooth transition from fossilfuels to renewable energy in the coming decades and centuries. Itis becoming abundantly clear that an increase in nuclear energycapacity will, and probably must, take place. However, nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides forcivilian and military purposes lead to extremely long-lived wastethat is costly and highly problematic to deal with. Therefore, itis critically important ot understand the environmentalimplications of radionuclides for ecosystems and human health ifnuclear energy is to be used to avoid the impending global energycrisis. The present volume of the EIC Books series addresses thiscritical need by providing fundamental information onenvironmentally significant radionuclides. The content of this book was developed in collaboration withmany of the authors of the chapters. Given the enormity of thesubject the Editor and the Authors had to be judicious in selectingthe chapters that would appropriately encompass and describe theprimary topics, particularly those that are of importance to thehealth of ecosystems and humans. The resulting chapters were chosento provide this information in a book of useful and appropriatelength. Each chapter provides fundamental information on thechemistry of the radionuclides, their occurrence and movement inthe enivornment, separation and analyses, and the technologiesneeded for their remediation and mitigation. The chapters arestructured with a common, systematic format in order to facilitatecomparions between elements and groups of elements. About EIC Books The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (EIC) has provedto be one of the defining standards in inorganic chemistry, andmost chemistry libraries around the world have access either to thefirst of second print editon, or to the online version. Manyreaders, however, prefer to have more concise thematic volumes,targeted to their specific area of interest. This feedback from EICreaders has encouraged the Editors to plan a series of EIC Books,focusing on topics of current interest. They will appear on aregular basis, and will feature leading scholars in their fields.Like the Encyclopedia, EIC Books aims to provide both the startingresearch student and the confirmed research worker with a criticaldistillation of the leading concepts in inorganic and bioinorganicchemistry, and provide a structured entry into the fieldscovered. This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia ofInorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set. This set combines all volumes published as EIC Books from 2007to 2010, representing areas of key developments in the field ofinorganic chemistry published in the Encyclopedia of InorganicChemistry. ahref="http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119994284.html"Findout more/a.
Category: Science

Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

Author : F. Zapata
ISBN : 9780306480546
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 20.7 MB
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This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Category: Technology & Engineering

Low Level Measurements Of Man Made Radionuclides In The Environment

Author : M García-León
ISBN : 9789814551519
Genre :
File Size : 26.58 MB
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This volume gives an up-to-date account of the methods used in the detection of artificial radionuclides and their spread in the environment. Contents: Alpha and Gamma Ray Spectrometry Applied to Low-Level Measurements (U C Mishra)Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Marine Polar Regions (E Holm)Release of 137Cs from Anoxic Lacustrine Sediment: Measurement and Formulation (H A Das)The Migration of Radionuclides in the Soil (K Bunzl)Radiochemical Separation Techniques for the Determination of Low-Level Artificial Radionuclides in Marine Samples (A Yamato)Analytical Quality Control-Quality Assurance IAEA-ILMR Intercomparison Programmes (S Ballestra & D Vas)Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Germanium Detectors (K Debertin)Some Experiences with Chemical and Physical Techniques for the Separation of Different Species of Man-Made Radionuclides in Environmental Waters (B R Harvey et al.)Reorganization of Atomic Shells after Radioactive Decay (W Bambynek)Determination of Low-Level Alpha and Beta Emitters Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction and a Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer (B Salbu et al.)Low-Level Gas Counting (P Povinec)and Articles by D Mouchel, A Baeza, A Martin and J C Lozano Readership: Radiation physicists. keywords:
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Chemistry And Analysis Of Radionuclides

Author : Jukka Lehto
ISBN : 9783527633029
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.75 MB
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Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.
Category: Science

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis Iv

Author : Peter Warwick
ISBN : 9781849731553
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.17 MB
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Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV is a collection of original papers presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists across the globe this new edition provides information on: "new methods of radionuclide analyses "developments and improvements in existing methods "mass spectrometry in radionuclide measurements "results of an intercomparison study "gamma detector performance "emergency radiological foodchain monitoring. The book is essential reading for practising radioanalysts and students who are specialising in radiochemical analysis.
Category: Science