ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIONUCLIDES 11 RADIOACTIVITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

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Analysis Of Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Pavel Povinec
ISBN : 0080553370
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.43 MB
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The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.
Category: Science

Handbook Of Radioactivity Analysis

Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
ISBN : 9780323137881
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.84 MB
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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is written by experts in the measurement of radioactivity. The book describes the broad scope of analytical methods available and instructs the reader on how to select the proper technique. It is intended as a practical manual for research which requires the accurate measurement of radioactivity at all levels, from the low levels encountered in the environment to the high levels measured in radioisotope research. This book contains sample preparation procedures, recommendations on steps to follow, necessary calculations, computer controlled analysis, and high sample throughput techniques. Each chapter includes practical techniques for application to nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, environmental analysis, weapons disarmament, and assays required for research in biomedicine and agriculture. The fundamentals of radioactivity properties, radionuclide decay, and methods of detection are included to provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures described in the book. Therefore, the Handbook can also be used as a teaching text. Key Features * Includes sample preparation techniques for matrices such as soil, air, plant, water, animal tissue, and surface swipes * Provides procedures and guidelines for the analysis of commonly encountered na
Category: Science

Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Klaus Froehlich
ISBN : 0080913296
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.28 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers
Category: Science

Radiological Risk Assessment And Environmental Analysis

Author : John E. Till
ISBN : 0199722919
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.70 MB
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Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides examples and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.
Category: Science

Radionuclides In The Environment

Author : David A. Atwood
ISBN : 9781118632697
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.89 MB
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Nuclear energy is the one energy source that could meet the world'sgrowing energy needs and provide a smooth transition from fossilfuels to renewable energy in the coming decades and centuries. Itis becoming abundantly clear that an increase in nuclear energycapacity will, and probably must, take place. However, nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides forcivilian and military purposes lead to extremely long-lived wastethat is costly and highly problematic to deal with. Therefore, itis critically important ot understand the environmentalimplications of radionuclides for ecosystems and human health ifnuclear energy is to be used to avoid the impending global energycrisis. The present volume of the EIC Books series addresses thiscritical need by providing fundamental information onenvironmentally significant radionuclides. The content of this book was developed in collaboration withmany of the authors of the chapters. Given the enormity of thesubject the Editor and the Authors had to be judicious in selectingthe chapters that would appropriately encompass and describe theprimary topics, particularly those that are of importance to thehealth of ecosystems and humans. The resulting chapters were chosento provide this information in a book of useful and appropriatelength. Each chapter provides fundamental information on thechemistry of the radionuclides, their occurrence and movement inthe enivornment, separation and analyses, and the technologiesneeded for their remediation and mitigation. The chapters arestructured with a common, systematic format in order to facilitatecomparions between elements and groups of elements. About EIC Books The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (EIC) has provedto be one of the defining standards in inorganic chemistry, andmost chemistry libraries around the world have access either to thefirst of second print editon, or to the online version. Manyreaders, however, prefer to have more concise thematic volumes,targeted to their specific area of interest. This feedback from EICreaders has encouraged the Editors to plan a series of EIC Books,focusing on topics of current interest. They will appear on aregular basis, and will feature leading scholars in their fields.Like the Encyclopedia, EIC Books aims to provide both the startingresearch student and the confirmed research worker with a criticaldistillation of the leading concepts in inorganic and bioinorganicchemistry, and provide a structured entry into the fieldscovered. This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia ofInorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set. This set combines all volumes published as EIC Books from 2007to 2010, representing areas of key developments in the field ofinorganic chemistry published in the Encyclopedia of InorganicChemistry. ahref="http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119994284.html"Findout more/a.
Category: Science

Remediation Of Contaminated Environments

Author :
ISBN : 9780080914152
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81.52 MB
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Remediation of Contaminated Environments summarises - amongst other things - what happened to the people and environment around Chernobyl (and other nuclear sites) and what measures need to be taken in future in the event of nuclear accidents etc. plus it has a very important and currently topical use in detailing what to do in the event of a terrorist dirty bomb attack on a city. Remediation, including characterization of contaminated sites; safety requirements; remediation planning; effectiveness of individual measures in different environments; social, ethical and economic considerations; application of modern decision aiding technologies Applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants, comprising areas contaminated by radiation accidents and incidents, nuclear weapon tests, natural radionuclides associated with nuclear fuel cycle, fossil material mining and gas and oil production Associated side effects (environmental and social) and human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; with particular regard to stakeholders and population involvement in making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites
Category: Technology & Engineering

Man Made And Natural Radioactivity In Environmental Pollution And Radiochronology

Author : Richard Tykva
ISBN : 1402018606
Genre : History
File Size : 65.98 MB
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The basic goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, including its sources and applications. In principle, there are two sources of environmental radioactivity, namely man-made and natural. The authors of this book set out to analyze mainly empirical aspects of the activities of both groups. On one hand, a detailed analysis of the sources releasing radionuclides into the environment by human activities should, while describing environmental pollution and its dangers, contribute to its decrease in the future. On the other hand, the analyses of natural radionuclides, as well as their influences and use in different fields, serve to complete an evaluation of the present state of environmental radioactivity. All auxiliary parts (e.g., principles of radionuclide analyses) are included to the extent necessary for understanding the basic themes. The many recent examples contained in the book will be useful in studying various problems of radioactivity in the present environment, and can help, not only in preparing, carrying out and evaluating outdoor and laboratory experiments, but also in protection of the environment and human health through analyses of possible sources of radioactive pollution. Audience: This book can be used by research workers, university professors and students in scientific and technological disciplines (e.g., nuclear physics and engineering, radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry, geology, hydrology, and archaeology), and by those involved in environmental protection and control in the nuclear industry (including nuclear weapons and nuclear safety).
Category: History

Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution

Author : N. Birsen
ISBN : 1402017901
Genre : Nature
File Size : 48.37 MB
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The reports presented here discuss: General estimation of the radioactive contamination of the territories and radiation hazardous objects, including former military test sites, areas influenced due to Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, and territories of oil fields; Techniques and procedures of radioecological monitoring; Techniques of determining radionuclide concentrations and species in the environment. The cross-border transport of radionuclides between Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan by the waterways of Central Asia is discussed and a number of cases are described where the redistribution and accumulation of the natural radionuclides resulted in dangerous radioecological situations. This book also provides a strong foundation on which to build further multilateral programmes that can enhance understanding and cooperation in addressing the issues surrounding the sites where nuclear weapons were once tested.
Category: Nature

Fukushima Accident

Author : Pavel P. Povinec
ISBN : 9780124114876
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30.70 MB
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Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches
Category: Technology & Engineering

Social And Ethical Aspects Of Radiation Risk Management

Author : Deborah Oughton
ISBN : 9780080914299
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60.29 MB
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Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience
Category: Technology & Engineering