ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIONUCLIDES 11 RADIOACTIVITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

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Analysis Of Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Pavel Povinec
ISBN : 0080553370
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.28 MB
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The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.
Category: Science

Handbook Of Radioactivity Analysis

Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
ISBN : 9780123848734
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.66 MB
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Authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity.
Category: Science

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V

Author : Peter Warwick
ISBN : 9781782622734
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.98 MB
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Incidents in the past have made scientists aware of the need for accurate methods of radionuclide analyses in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is an authoritative, up-to-date collection of research contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists from across the globe it presents information on radiochemical analysis, measurement of radioactivity, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactively contaminated land, fate of radionuclides in natural and engineered environments and behaviour and analysis of radionuclides in radioactive wastes. This essential work will be a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.
Category: Science

Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Klaus Froehlich
ISBN : 0080913296
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.67 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers
Category: Science

Man Made And Natural Radioactivity In Environmental Pollution And Radiochronology

Author : Richard Tykva
ISBN : 1402018606
Genre : History
File Size : 68.74 MB
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The basic goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, including its sources and applications. In principle, there are two sources of environmental radioactivity, namely man-made and natural. The authors of this book set out to analyze mainly empirical aspects of the activities of both groups. On one hand, a detailed analysis of the sources releasing radionuclides into the environment by human activities should, while describing environmental pollution and its dangers, contribute to its decrease in the future. On the other hand, the analyses of natural radionuclides, as well as their influences and use in different fields, serve to complete an evaluation of the present state of environmental radioactivity. All auxiliary parts (e.g., principles of radionuclide analyses) are included to the extent necessary for understanding the basic themes. The many recent examples contained in the book will be useful in studying various problems of radioactivity in the present environment, and can help, not only in preparing, carrying out and evaluating outdoor and laboratory experiments, but also in protection of the environment and human health through analyses of possible sources of radioactive pollution. Audience: This book can be used by research workers, university professors and students in scientific and technological disciplines (e.g., nuclear physics and engineering, radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry, geology, hydrology, and archaeology), and by those involved in environmental protection and control in the nuclear industry (including nuclear weapons and nuclear safety).
Category: History

Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Klaus Froehlich
ISBN : 0080913296
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.99 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers
Category: Science

Radionuclides In The Environment

Author : David A. Atwood
ISBN : 9781118632697
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.86 MB
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Nuclear energy is the one energy source that could meet the world's growing energy needs and provide a smooth transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the coming decades and centuries. It is becoming abundantly clear that an increase in nuclear energy capacity will, and probably must, take place. However, nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for civilian and military purposes lead to extremely long-lived waste that is costly and highly problematic to deal with. Therefore, it is critically important ot understand the environmental implications of radionuclides for ecosystems and human health if nuclear energy is to be used to avoid the impending global energy crisis. The present volume of the EIC Books series addresses this critical need by providing fundamental information on environmentally significant radionuclides. The content of this book was developed in collaboration with many of the authors of the chapters. Given the enormity of the subject the Editor and the Authors had to be judicious in selecting the chapters that would appropriately encompass and describe the primary topics, particularly those that are of importance to the health of ecosystems and humans. The resulting chapters were chosen to provide this information in a book of useful and appropriate length. Each chapter provides fundamental information on the chemistry of the radionuclides, their occurrence and movement in the enivornment, separation and analyses, and the technologies needed for their remediation and mitigation. The chapters are structured with a common, systematic format in order to facilitate comparions between elements and groups of elements. About EIC Books The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (EIC) has proved to be one of the defining standards in inorganic chemistry, and most chemistry libraries around the world have access either to the first of second print editon, or to the online version. Many readers, however, prefer to have more concise thematic volumes, targeted to their specific area of interest. This feedback from EIC readers has encouraged the Editors to plan a series of EIC Books, focusing on topics of current interest. They will appear on a regular basis, and will feature leading scholars in their fields. Like the Encyclopedia, EIC Books aims to provide both the starting research student and the confirmed research worker with a critical distillation of the leading concepts in inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry, and provide a structured entry into the fields covered. This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set. This set combines all volumes published as EIC Books from 2007 to 2010, representing areas of key developments in the field of inorganic chemistry published in the Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. Find out more.
Category: Science

Radiological Risk Assessment And Environmental Analysis

Author : John E. Till
ISBN : 0199722919
Genre : Science
File Size : 23.21 MB
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Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides examples and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.
Category: Science

Fukushima Accident

Author : Pavel P. Povinec
ISBN : 9780124114876
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58.46 MB
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Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches
Category: Technology & Engineering

Radioactivity In The Environment

Author : Vlado Valkovic
ISBN : 9780080540245
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.13 MB
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Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book.
Category: Science