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Analog Vlsi And Neural Systems

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : UOM:49015000947821
Genre : Computers
File Size : 37.95 MB
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The first book to take VLSI into the analog domain and apply it to biology. It provides solid tools for research in artificial intelligence and neurobiology while illustrating powerful new applications for analog systems.
Category: Computers

Analog Vlsi Implementation Of Neural Systems

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : 9781461316398
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77.98 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop on Analog Integrated Neural Systems held May 8, 1989, in connection with the International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. The presentations were chosen to encompass the entire range of topics currently under study in this exciting new discipline. Stringent acceptance requirements were placed on contributions: (1) each description was required to include detailed characterization of a working chip, and (2) each design was not to have been published previously. In several cases, the status of the project was not known until a few weeks before the meeting date. As a result, some of the most recent innovative work in the field was presented. Because this discipline is evolving rapidly, each project is very much a work in progress. Authors were asked to devote considerable attention to the shortcomings of their designs, as well as to the notable successes they achieved. In this way, other workers can now avoid stumbling into the same traps, and evolution can proceed more rapidly (and less painfully). The chapters in this volume are presented in the same order as the corresponding presentations at the workshop. The first two chapters are concerned with fmding solutions to complex optimization problems under a predefmed set of constraints. The first chapter reports what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first neural-chip design. In each case, the physics of the underlying electronic medium is used to represent a cost function in a natural way, using only nearest-neighbor connectivity.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Adaptive Analog Vlsi Neural Systems

Author : M. Jabri
ISBN : 9789401105255
Genre : Computers
File Size : 47.93 MB
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Adaptive Analog VLSI Neural Systems is the first practical book on neural networks learning chips and systems. It covers the entire process of implementing neural networks in VLSI chips, beginning with the crucial issues of learning algorithms in an analog framework and limited precision effects, and giving actual case studies of working systems. The approach is systems and applications oriented throughout, demonstrating the attractiveness of such an approach for applications such as adaptive pattern recognition and optical character recognition. Dr Jabri and his co-authors from AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bellcore and the University of Sydney provide a comprehensive introduction to VLSI neural networks suitable for research and development staff and advanced students.
Category: Computers

Learning On Silicon

Author : G. Cauwenberghs
ISBN : 0792385551
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 35.33 MB
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Learning on Silicon combines models of adaptive information processing in the brain with advances in microelectronics technology and circuit design. The premise is to construct integrated systems not only loaded with sufficient computational power to handle demanding signal processing tasks in sensory perception and pattern recognition, but also capable of operating autonomously and robustly in unpredictable environments through mechanisms of adaptation and learning. This edited volume covers the spectrum of Learning on Silicon in five parts: adaptive sensory systems, neuromorphic learning, learning architectures, learning dynamics, and learning systems. The 18 chapters are documented with examples of fabricated systems, experimental results from silicon, and integrated applications ranging from adaptive optics to biomedical instrumentation. As the first comprehensive treatment on the subject, Learning on Silicon serves as a reference for beginners and experienced researchers alike. It provides excellent material for an advanced course, and a source of inspiration for continued research towards building intelligent adaptive machines.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Vlsi For Neural Networks And Artificial Intelligence

Author : Jose G. Delgado-Frias
ISBN : 9781489913319
Genre : Computers
File Size : 42.14 MB
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Neural network and artificial intelligence algorithrns and computing have increased not only in complexity but also in the number of applications. This in turn has posed a tremendous need for a larger computational power that conventional scalar processors may not be able to deliver efficiently. These processors are oriented towards numeric and data manipulations. Due to the neurocomputing requirements (such as non-programming and learning) and the artificial intelligence requirements (such as symbolic manipulation and knowledge representation) a different set of constraints and demands are imposed on the computer architectures/organizations for these applications. Research and development of new computer architectures and VLSI circuits for neural networks and artificial intelligence have been increased in order to meet the new performance requirements. This book presents novel approaches and trends on VLSI implementations of machines for these applications. Papers have been drawn from a number of research communities; the subjects span analog and digital VLSI design, computer design, computer architectures, neurocomputing and artificial intelligence techniques. This book has been organized into four subject areas that cover the two major categories of this book; the areas are: analog circuits for neural networks, digital implementations of neural networks, neural networks on multiprocessor systems and applications, and VLSI machines for artificial intelligence. The topics that are covered in each area are briefly introduced below.
Category: Computers

An Analog Vlsi System For Stereoscopic Vision

Author : Misha Mahowald
ISBN : 9781461527244
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43.75 MB
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An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision investigates the interaction of the physical medium and the computation in both biological and analog VLSI systems by synthesizing a functional neuromorphic system in silicon. In both the synthesis and analysis of the system, a point of view from within the system is adopted rather than that of an omniscient designer drawing a blueprint. This perspective projects the design and the designer into a living landscape. The motivation for a machine-centered perspective is explained in the first chapter. The second chapter describes the evolution of the silicon retina. The retina accurately encodes visual information over orders of magnitude of ambient illumination, using mismatched components that are calibrated as part of the encoding process. The visual abstraction created by the retina is suitable for transmission through a limited bandwidth channel. The third chapter introduces a general method for interchip communication, the address-event representation, which is used for transmission of retinal data. The address-event representation takes advantage of the speed of CMOS relative to biological neurons to preserve the information of biological action potentials using digital circuitry in place of axons. The fourth chapter describes a collective circuit that computes stereodisparity. In this circuit, the processing that corrects for imperfections in the hardware compensates for inherent ambiguity in the environment. The fifth chapter demonstrates a primitive working stereovision system. An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision contributes to both computer engineering and neuroscience at a concrete level. Through the construction of a working analog of biological vision subsystems, new circuits for building brain-style analog computers have been developed. Specific neuropysiological and psychophysical results in terms of underlying electronic mechanisms are explained. These examples demonstrate the utility of using biological principles for building brain-style computers and the significance of building brain-style computers for understanding the nervous system.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Analog Vlsi Circuits For The Perception Of Visual Motion

Author : Alan A. Stocker
ISBN : 9780470034880
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 63.85 MB
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Although it is now possible to integrate many millions of transistors on a single chip, traditional digital circuit technology is now reaching its limits, facing problems of cost and technical efficiency when scaled down to ever-smaller feature sizes. The analysis of biological neural systems, especially for visual processing, has allowed engineers to better understand how complex networks can effectively process large amounts of information, whilst dealing with difficult computational challenges. Analog and parallel processing are key characteristics of biological neural networks. Analog VLSI circuits using the same features can therefore be developed to emulate brain-style processing. Using standard CMOS technology, they can be cheaply manufactured, permitting efficient industrial and consumer applications in robotics and mobile electronics. This book explores the theory, design and implementation of analog VLSI circuits, inspired by visual motion processing in biological neural networks. Using a novel approach pioneered by the author himself, Stocker explains in detail the construction of a series of electronic chips, providing the reader with a valuable practical insight into the technology. Analog VLSI Circuits for the Perception of Visual Motion: analyses the computational problems in visual motion perception; examines the issue of optimization in analog networks through high level processes such as motion segmentation and selective attention; demonstrates network implementation in analog VLSI CMOS technology to provide computationally efficient devices; sets out measurements of final hardware implementation; illustrates the similarities of the presented circuits with the human visual motion perception system; includes an accompanying website with video clips of circuits under real-time visual conditions and additional supplementary material. With a complete review of all existing neuromorphic analog VLSI systems for visual motion sensing, Analog VLSI Circuits for the Perception of Visual Motion is a unique reference for advanced students in electrical engineering, artificial intelligence, robotics and computational neuroscience. It will also be useful for researchers, professionals, and electronics engineers working in the field.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Self Adaptive Systems For Machine Intelligence

Author : Haibo He
ISBN : 1118025598
Genre : Computers
File Size : 62.64 MB
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This book will advance the understanding and application of self-adaptive intelligent systems; therefore it will potentially benefit the long-term goal of replicating certain levels of brain-like intelligence in complex and networked engineering systems. It will provide new approaches for adaptive systems within uncertain environments. This will provide an opportunity to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art of knowledge, give rise to new research directions, and educate future professionals in this domain. Self-adaptive intelligent systems have wide applications from military security systems to civilian daily life. In this book, different application problems, including pattern recognition, classification, image recovery, and sequence learning, will be presented to show the capability of the proposed systems in learning, memory, and prediction. Therefore, this book will also provide potential new solutions to many real-world applications.
Category: Computers

Neuromorphic Systems Engineering

Author : Tor Sverre Lande
ISBN : 9780585280011
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55.50 MB
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Neuromorphic Systems Engineering: Neural Networks in Silicon emphasizes three important aspects of this exciting new research field. The term neuromorphic expresses relations to computational models found in biological neural systems, which are used as inspiration for building large electronic systems in silicon. By adequate engineering, these silicon systems are made useful to mankind. Neuromorphic Systems Engineering: Neural Networks in Silicon provides the reader with a snapshot of neuromorphic engineering today. It is organized into five parts viewing state-of-the-art developments within neuromorphic engineering from different perspectives. Neuromorphic Systems Engineering: Neural Networks in Silicon provides the first collection of neuromorphic systems descriptions with firm foundations in silicon. Topics presented include: large scale analog systems in silicon neuromorphic silicon auditory (ear) and vision (eye) systems in silicon learning and adaptation in silicon merging biology and technology micropower analog circuit design analog memory analog interchipcommunication on digital buses £/LIST£ Neuromorphic Systems Engineering: Neural Networks in Silicon serves as an excellent resource for scientists, researchers and engineers in this emerging field, and may also be used as a text for advanced courses on the subject.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Hardware Implementation Of Intelligent Systems

Author : Horia-Nicolai Teodorescu
ISBN : 9783790818161
Genre : Computers
File Size : 70.15 MB
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Intelligent systems are now being used more commonly than in the past. These involve cognitive, evolving and artificial-life, robotic, and decision making systems, to name a few. Due to the tremendous speed of development, on both fundamental and technological levels, it is virtually impossible to offer an up-to-date, yet comprehensive overview of this field. Nevertheless, the need for a volume presenting recent developments and trends in this domain is huge, and the demand for such a volume is continually increasing in industrial and academic engineering 1 communities. Although there are a few volumes devoted to similar issues , none offer a comprehensive coverage of the field; moreover they risk rapidly becoming obsolete. The editors of this volume cannot pretend to fill such a large gap. However, it is the editors' intention to fill a significant part of this gap. A comprehensive coverage of the field should include topics such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, neuro-fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, evolvable hardware, cellular automata-based systems, and various types of artificial life-system implementations, including autonomous robots. In this volume, we have focused on the first five topics listed above. The volume is composed of four parts, each part being divided into chapters, with the exception of part 4. In Part 1, the topics of "Evolvable Hardware and GAs" are addressed. In Chapter 1, "Automated Design Synthesis and Partitioning for Adaptive Reconfigurable Hardware", Ranga Vemuri and co-authors present state-of-the-art adaptive architectures, their classification, and their applications.
Category: Computers