ANALOG VLSI AND NEURAL SYSTEMS

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Analog Vlsi And Neural Systems

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : UOM:49015000947821
Genre : Computers
File Size : 61.83 MB
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The first book to take VLSI into the analog domain and apply it to biology. It provides solid tools for research in artificial intelligence and neurobiology while illustrating powerful new applications for analog systems.
Category: Computers

Adaptive Analog Vlsi Neural Systems

Author : M. Jabri
ISBN : 9789401105255
Genre : Computers
File Size : 53.10 MB
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amplitude ~---. -----. -----. -----,-----. -----,-,~ VfT:j·" 4. 50 4. 00 3. 50 q . 3. 00 /'\. ~ -'" : ! . 2. 50 ,: \ . . . 1! -. i "'" " 2. 00 1. 50 ··GO··O_O_ ,-. . . . &. , . ; D Q . " . . . / 1. 00 0. 50 0. 00 L. -----1. . ---. . l. -----:-:::''"::-::--::-::-'-:::-::------=--::-'-::-:=---=-=""=_:' 5. 00 10. 00 15. 00 Figure 7. 1 The morphology of ST and VT retrograde 1:1. © 1995 IEEE [Coggins, labri, Flower and Pickard {1995}]. ing to the analog domain. Additionally, the use of differential pair multipliers and current node summing in the network allows a min imum of devices in the network itself and hence associated savings in power and area. However, in the last few decades analog signal processing has been used sparingly due to the effects of device off sets, noise and drift*. The neural network architecture alleviates these problems to a large extent due to the fact that it is both highly parallel and adaptive. The fact that the network is trained to recognize morphologies with the analog circuits in-loop means that the synaptic weights can be adapted to cancel device offsets [Castro, Tam and Holler (1993); Castro and Sweet (1993)]. The impact of local un correlated noise is reduced by the parallelism of * Most fabrication processes have been optimised for digital design techniques which results in poor analog performance.
Category: Computers

Analog Vlsi Implementation Of Neural Systems

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : 9781461316398
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.47 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop on Analog Integrated Neural Systems held May 8, 1989, in connection with the International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. The presentations were chosen to encompass the entire range of topics currently under study in this exciting new discipline. Stringent acceptance requirements were placed on contributions: (1) each description was required to include detailed characterization of a working chip, and (2) each design was not to have been published previously. In several cases, the status of the project was not known until a few weeks before the meeting date. As a result, some of the most recent innovative work in the field was presented. Because this discipline is evolving rapidly, each project is very much a work in progress. Authors were asked to devote considerable attention to the shortcomings of their designs, as well as to the notable successes they achieved. In this way, other workers can now avoid stumbling into the same traps, and evolution can proceed more rapidly (and less painfully). The chapters in this volume are presented in the same order as the corresponding presentations at the workshop. The first two chapters are concerned with fmding solutions to complex optimization problems under a predefmed set of constraints. The first chapter reports what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first neural-chip design. In each case, the physics of the underlying electronic medium is used to represent a cost function in a natural way, using only nearest-neighbor connectivity.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Analog Vlsi

Author : Shih-Chii Liu
ISBN : 0262122553
Genre : Computers
File Size : 20.6 MB
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An introduction to the design of analog VLSI circuits.
Category: Computers

Learning On Silicon

Author : G. Cauwenberghs
ISBN : 0792385551
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.79 MB
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Learning on Silicon combines models of adaptive information processing in the brain with advances in microelectronics technology and circuit design. The premise is to construct integrated systems not only loaded with sufficient computational power to handle demanding signal processing tasks in sensory perception and pattern recognition, but also capable of operating autonomously and robustly in unpredictable environments through mechanisms of adaptation and learning. This edited volume covers the spectrum of Learning on Silicon in five parts: adaptive sensory systems, neuromorphic learning, learning architectures, learning dynamics, and learning systems. The 18 chapters are documented with examples of fabricated systems, experimental results from silicon, and integrated applications ranging from adaptive optics to biomedical instrumentation. As the first comprehensive treatment on the subject, Learning on Silicon serves as a reference for beginners and experienced researchers alike. It provides excellent material for an advanced course, and a source of inspiration for continued research towards building intelligent adaptive machines.
Category: Technology & Engineering

An Analog Vlsi System For Stereoscopic Vision

Author : Misha Mahowald
ISBN : 9781461527244
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48.65 MB
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An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision investigates the interaction of the physical medium and the computation in both biological and analog VLSI systems by synthesizing a functional neuromorphic system in silicon. In both the synthesis and analysis of the system, a point of view from within the system is adopted rather than that of an omniscient designer drawing a blueprint. This perspective projects the design and the designer into a living landscape. The motivation for a machine-centered perspective is explained in the first chapter. The second chapter describes the evolution of the silicon retina. The retina accurately encodes visual information over orders of magnitude of ambient illumination, using mismatched components that are calibrated as part of the encoding process. The visual abstraction created by the retina is suitable for transmission through a limited bandwidth channel. The third chapter introduces a general method for interchip communication, the address-event representation, which is used for transmission of retinal data. The address-event representation takes advantage of the speed of CMOS relative to biological neurons to preserve the information of biological action potentials using digital circuitry in place of axons. The fourth chapter describes a collective circuit that computes stereodisparity. In this circuit, the processing that corrects for imperfections in the hardware compensates for inherent ambiguity in the environment. The fifth chapter demonstrates a primitive working stereovision system. An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision contributes to both computer engineering and neuroscience at a concrete level. Through the construction of a working analog of biological vision subsystems, new circuits for building brain-style analog computers have been developed. Specific neuropysiological and psychophysical results in terms of underlying electronic mechanisms are explained. These examples demonstrate the utility of using biological principles for building brain-style computers and the significance of building brain-style computers for understanding the nervous system.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Neural Engineering

Author : Chris Eliasmith
ISBN : 0262550601
Genre : Medical
File Size : 29.79 MB
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A synthesis of current approaches to adapting engineering tools to the study of neurobiological systems.
Category: Medical

Event Based Neuromorphic Systems

Author : Shih-Chii Liu
ISBN : 9781118927625
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50.75 MB
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Neuromorphic electronic engineering takes its inspiration from the functioning of nervous systems to build more power efficient electronic sensors and processors. Event-based neuromorphic systems are inspired by the brain's efficient data-driven communication design, which is key to its quick responses and remarkable capabilities. This cross-disciplinary text establishes how circuit building blocks are combined in architectures to construct complete systems. These include vision and auditory sensors as well as neuronal processing and learning circuits that implement models of nervous systems. Techniques for building multi-chip scalable systems are considered throughout the book, including methods for dealing with transistor mismatch, extensive discussions of communication and interfacing, and making systems that operate in the real world. The book also provides historical context that helps relate the architectures and circuits to each other and that guides readers to the extensive literature. Chapters are written by founding experts and have been extensively edited for overall coherence. This pioneering text is an indispensable resource for practicing neuromorphic electronic engineers, advanced electrical engineering and computer science students and researchers interested in neuromorphic systems. Key features: Summarises the latest design approaches, applications, and future challenges in the field of neuromorphic engineering. Presents examples of practical applications of neuromorphic design principles. Covers address-event communication, retinas, cochleas, locomotion, learning theory, neurons, synapses, floating gate circuits, hardware and software infrastructure, algorithms, and future challenges.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Introduction To Vlsi Systems

Author : Carver Mead
ISBN : 0201043580
Genre : Computers
File Size : 62.7 MB
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MOS devices and circuits. Integrated system fabrication. Data and control flow in systematic structures. Implementing integrated system designs: from circuit topology to patterning geometry to wafer fabrication. Overview of an LSI computer system, and the design of the OM2 data path chip. Architecture and design of system controllers, and the design of the OM2 controller chip. System timing. Highly concurrent systems. Physics of computational systems.
Category: Computers

Introduction To Analog Vlsi Design Automation

Author : Mohammed Ismail
ISBN : 9781461315353
Genre : Computers
File Size : 27.21 MB
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Very large scale integration (VLSI) technologies are now maturing with a current emphasis toward submicron structures and sophisticated applications combining digital as well as analog circuits on a single chip. Abundant examples are found on today's advanced systems for telecom munications, robotics, automotive electronics, image processing, intelli gent sensors, etc .. Exciting new applications are being unveiled in the field of neural computing where the massive use of analog/digital VLSI technologies will have a significant impact. To match such a fast technological trend towards single chip ana logi digital VLSI systems, researchers worldwide have long realized the vital need of producing advanced computer aided tools for designing both digital and analog circuits and systems for silicon integration. Ar chitecture and circuit compilation, device sizing and the layout genera tion are but a few familiar tasks on the world of digital integrated circuit design which can be efficiently accomplished by matured computer aided tools. In contrast, the art of tools for designing and producing analog or even analogi digital integrated circuits is quite primitive and still lack ing the industrial penetration and acceptance already achieved by digital counterparts. In fact, analog design is commonly perceived to be one of the most knowledge-intensive design tasks and analog circuits are still designed, largely by hand, by expert intimately familiar with nuances of the target application and integrated circuit fabrication process. The techniques needed to build good analog circuits seem to exist solely as expertise invested in individual designers.
Category: Computers