An Urban Geography Of The Roman World 100 Bc To Ad 300

Author : J. W. Hanson
ISBN : 178491472X
Genre :
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Although there have been numerous studies of individual cities or groups of cities, there has never been a study of the urbanism of the Roman world as a whole, meaning that we have been poorly informed not only about the number of cities and how they were distributed and changed over time, but also about their sizes and populations, monumentality, and civic status. This book provides a new account of the urbanism of the Roman world between 100 BC and AD 300. To do so, it draws on a combination of textual sources and archaeological material to provide a new catalogue of cities, calculates new estimates of their areas and uses a range of population densities to estimate their populations, and brings together available information about their monumentality and civic status for the first time. This evidence demonstrates that, although there were relatively few cities, many had considerable sizes and populations, substantial amounts of monumentality, and held various kinds of civic status. This indicates that there was significant economic growth in this period, including both extensive and intensive economic growth, which resulted from an influx of wealth through conquest and the intrinsic changes that came with Roman rule (including the expansion of urbanism). This evidence also suggests that there was a system that was characterized by areas of intense urban demand, which was met through an efficient system for the extraction of necessity and luxury goods from immediate hinterlands and an effective system for bringing these items from further afield. The disruption of these links seems to have put this system under considerable strain towards the end of this period and may have been sufficient to cause its ultimate collapse. This appears to have been in marked contrast to the medieval and early modern periods, when urbanism was more able to respond to changes in supply and demand.
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Trade Commerce And The State In The Roman World

Author : Alan Bowman
ISBN : 9780198790662
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 75.52 MB
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This volume presents eighteen papers by leading Roman historians and archaeologists discussing trade in the Roman Empire during the period c.100 BC to AD 350. It focuses especially on the role of the Roman state in shaping the institutional framework for trade within and outside the empire, in taxing that trade, and in intervening in the markets to ensure the supply of particular commodities, especially for the city of Rome and for the army. As part of a novel interdisciplinary approach to the subject, the chapters address its myriad facets on the basis of broadly different sources of evidence: historical, papyrological, and archaeological. They are grouped into three sections, covering institutional factors (taxation, legal structures, market regulation, financial institutions); evidence for long-distance trade within the empire in wood, stone, glass, and pottery; and trade beyond the frontiers, with the east (as far as China), India, Arabia, the Red Sea, and the Sahara. Rome's external trade with realms to the east emerges as being of particular significance, but it is in the eastern part of the empire itself where the state appears to have adapted the mechanisms of taxation in collaboration with the elite holders of wealth to support its need for revenue. On the other hand, the price of that collaboration, which was in effect a fiscal partnership, ultimately led in the longer term in slightly different forms in the east and the west to a fundamental change in the political character of the empire.
Category: Architecture

L Ndliche Siedlungsstrukturen Im R Mischen Spanien

Author : Jan Schneider
ISBN : 1784915548
Genre :
File Size : 41.84 MB
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The present study deals with the comparison of rural settlements, aiming to compare developments in various settlements of the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman era. This is to show to what extent structures in the hinterland show parallels or are different from one another and to explore the causes of these similarities and differences. Aspects of the Roman economy must be taken into account as well as the micro-regional influences of pre-Roman settlement or topographical conditions. To achieve this goal, various aspects of rural settlements such as the dating, size or status of a place and its location and environmental conditions are analyzed and related. Archaeological, geographic and statistical methods of investigation are used. These methods, along with the complete resulting data, are fully disclosed in order to allow the comparison to be extended to other regions. The Vera basin and the Camp de Tarragona were chosen as study areas. The former is located in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and was seen in the Roman period as the hinterland of the city of Baria, today's Villaricos. Also on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, but in the north, is Camp de Tarragona. The name refers to the surrounding area of the Roman city of Tarraco, capital of the Hispania Tarraconensis province of the same name. German Description: Die vorliegende Untersuchung besch�ftigt sich mit dem Vergleich l�ndlicher Siedlungsstrukturen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Entwicklungen in verschiedenen Siedlungskammern der Iberischen Halbinsel w�hrend der r�mischen Epoche einander gegen�berzustellen. Dies soll zeigen, inwieweit Strukturen im Hinterland Parallelen aufweisen oder voneinander abweichen und worin die diese Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede begr�ndet sind. Dabei sind Aspekte des r�mischen Wirtschaftswesens ebenso zu ber�cksichtigen, wie mikroregionale Einfl�sse der vorr�mischen Besiedlung oder topographische Gegebenheiten. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, werden verschiedene Aspekte l�ndlicher Siedlungsstrukturen wie Datierung, Gr��e oder Status eines Platzes und dessen Standort- und Umgebungsbedingungen analysiert und in Beziehung zueinander gesetzt. Dabei kommen arch�ologische, geographische und statistische Untersuchungsmethoden zum Einsatz. Diese werden ebenso wie s�mtliche Daten und Ergebnisse innerhalb der Arbeit vollst�ndig offengelegt, um eine Ausweitung des Vergleichs auf weitere Regionen zu erm�glichen. Als Untersuchungsgebiete wurden das Becken von Vera und das Camp de Tarragona ausgew�hlt. Ersteres liegt im S�dosten der Iberischen Halbinsel an der spanischen Mittelmeerk�ste und war in r�mischer Zeit als Hinterland der Stadt Baria, dem heutigen Villaricos, anzusehen. Ebenfalls an der Mittelmeerk�ste Spaniens, jedoch in dessen Norden, liegt das Camp de Tarragona. Der Name bezeichnet das Umland der r�mischen Stadt Tarraco, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen Provinz Hispania Tarraconensis.
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Sp Tmykenische Stadtheiligt Mer

Author : Gabriele Albers
ISBN : UVA:X002493035
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39.40 MB
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This book is an important attempt to understand the class of Mycenaean site known as the `cult centre'. After examining the concept the author synthesises the evidence from Mycenae, Phylakopi, Tiryns, Asine and Agia Irini. Systematic comparative study of the architecture and spatial patterning of artefacts allows the author to arrive at some interesting conclusions about the role of these puzzling sites.
Category: Social Science

Geschichte Der R Mischen Literatur

Author : Michael von Albrecht
ISBN : 9783110266740
Genre : History
File Size : 78.11 MB
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This volume, which has now been published in eight languages, provides an overview of all Latin literature, from its beginnings to Boethius. ‘Literature’ is understood in the ancient sense, that is it also includes rhetoric, history, philosophy and specialised sciences. Particular attention is paid to the continued influence of Latin literature up until the present day.
Category: History

Attila

Author : Klaus Rosen
ISBN : 9783406690310
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 82.62 MB
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„Die ganze Saat des Verderbens und der Ursprung der verschiedenen Katastrophen, welche die Wut des Kriegsgottes, alles mit außergewöhnlichem Brand erfüllend, heraufbeschwor, hatte folgende Ursache ... das Volk der Hunnen.“ So beginnt der Historiker Ammianus Marcellinus seine Ausführungen über jene Reiterscharen von unbeschreiblicher Wildheit, deren Vordringen den römischen Erdkreis mit Entsetzen erfüllte. An der Spitze dieses Heeres stand um die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts Attila, die „Geißel Gottes“ – wie er in der mittelalterlichen Überlieferung genannt wird. Klaus Rosen legt eine spannende Darstellung der Hunnen und ihrer Geschichte und zugleich eine Biographie ihres Königs Attila vor. Er bietet einen exzellenten Überblick über die Hunnen von ihren Anfängen bis zum Zerfall des Attilareiches unter den Söhnen des Herrschers. Und er entwirft ein anschauliches Bild von den Konflikten zwischen Barbaricum und Imperium Romanum, von den Machtstrukturen, den Protagonisten, den Schlachten – insbesondere der dramatischen Schlacht auf den Katalaunischen Feldern (451) – und schließlich vom Ende Attilas.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Ethnoarch Ologische Studien Zum Neolithikum S Dwesteuropas

Author : Josef Winiger
ISBN : UVA:X006027565
Genre : History
File Size : 25.80 MB
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This volume examines Africa and the oldest pottery of western Europe; Chamblandes-Chassey-Cortaillod: where did the Mesolithics remain? and The ice-mummy of the Hauslabjoch and the Copper Age in the area of the western Alps. German text with English summaries, extensive bibliographies and numerous figures.
Category: History

Wetter Klima Menschheitsentwicklung

Author : Frank Sirocko
ISBN : 3806227462
Genre : Climate and civilization
File Size : 62.19 MB
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Waldbrände, Flutkatastrophen, Erderwärmung - ein Phänomen des 21. Jahrhunderts? Oder bestimmt der Klimawandel nicht schon immer den Weg des Menschen? Mit dieser brandaktuellen Fragestellung befasst sich der Geowissenschaftler Frank Sirocko, doch nicht mit dem Ziel, die Zukunft vorherzusagen, sondern vielmehr um einen Blick weit zurück in die Vergangenheit zu werfen. Hochrangige archäologische Funde und historisch bedeutsame Ereignisse werden auf der Grundlage jüngster, bislang unveröffentlichter Forschungsergebnisse mit Wetter- und Klimaphänomenen in einen konkreten Zusammenhang gebracht. Ort ...
Category: Climate and civilization