AN INTRODUCTION TO FORMAL LOGIC

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An Introduction To Formal Logic

Author : Peter Smith
ISBN : 0521008042
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 32.27 MB
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Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.
Category: Mathematics

An Introduction To Symbolic Logic

Author : Langer
ISBN : 0486601641
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 40.1 MB
Format : PDF
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Famous classic has introduced countless readers to symbolic logic with its thorough and precise exposition. Starts with simple symbols and conventions and concludes with the Boole-Schroeder and Russell-Whitehead systems. No special knowledge of mathematics necessary. "One of the clearest and simplest introductions to a subject which is very much alive." — Mathematics Gazette.
Category: Mathematics

An Introduction To Formal Logic

Author : Richard L Epstein
ISBN : 1938421272
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 56.99 MB
Format : PDF
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Intended for a course for beginning students in philosophy, mathematics, linguistics, or computer science. Motivation for each formal concept and each step in building a formal logic in terms of formalizing reasoning. Provides a conception of formal logic and not just a collection of results. Summaries at important junctures in the book keep students aware of what they're doing and where they're going. Hundreds of exercises that teach. Criteria of formalization with many examples of formalizing ordinary language reasoning in an example-analysis format. A complete course: syntax, semantics, and completeness theorems for classical propositional logic and classical predicate logic, and syntax and semantics for second-order classical predicate logic."
Category: Mathematics

Logic With Trees

Author : Colin Howson
ISBN : 9781134785506
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 64.24 MB
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First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Philosophy

The Languages Of Logic

Author : Samuel Guttenplan
ISBN : 155786988X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61.86 MB
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With the same intellectual goals as the first edition, this innovative introductory logic textbook explores the relationship between natural language and logic, motivating the student to acquire skills and techniques of formal logic. This new and revised edition includes substantial additions which make the text even more useful to students and instructors alike. Central to these changes is an Appendix, 'How to Learn Logic', which takes the student through fourteen compact and sharply directed lessons with exercises and answers.
Category: Philosophy

The Logic Of Our Language

Author : Rodger L. Jackson
ISBN : 9781460402788
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 63.75 MB
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The Logic of Our Language teaches the practical and everyday application of formal logic. Rather than overwhelming the reader with abstract theory, Jackson and McLeod show how the skills developed through the practice of logic can help us to better understand our own language and reasoning processes. The authors’ goal is to draw attention to the patterns and logical structures inherent in our spoken and written language by teaching the reader how to translate English sentences into formal symbols. Other logical tools, including truth tables, truth trees, and natural deduction, are then introduced as techniques for examining the properties of symbolized sentences and assessing the validity of arguments. A substantial number of practice questions are offered both within the book itself and as interactive activities on a companion website.
Category: Philosophy

Argument And Abstraction

Author : Gerald Mozur
ISBN : 0072359056
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.82 MB
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From the Preface: "What is attempted here is an explanation of the workings of formal logic (categorical logic and truth functional logic) in a "how-to" way. My explanations are perhaps short on theoretical background or references, but my belief is that introductory students are better served by learning how to do formal logic before entertaining what theoretical conundrums there are at this level of analysis. For example, I do little with the idea of causal relationships or contrary-to-fact conditionals when explaining conditional truth functional statements. Each instructor can introduce these subtleties as he or she sees fit. Similarly, categorical logic is explained in a straightforward manner, and although I make very brief allusions to Aristotle, there is little in-depth investigation of the intricacies involved in developing this traditional branch of logic. I say nothing about translating idiomatic or colloquial expressions into standard categorical form. Those who prefer categorical logic and feel it is essential to an introductory level course will find that chapter lacking. My recommendation is to supplement it as necessary. For my part, I find that learning the simple square of opposition, the operations, and Venn diagrams and the rules of validity for syllogisms are sufficient. Perhaps in the future I may add more. Again, each instructor may supplement as they see fit.
Category: Philosophy

Formal Methods

Author : E.W. Beth
ISBN : 9789401032698
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 86.26 MB
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Many philosophers have considered logical reasoning as an inborn ability of mankind and as a distinctive feature in the human mind; but we all know that the distribution of this capacity, or at any rate its development, is very unequal. Few people are able to set up a cogent argument; others are at least able to follow a logical argument and even to detect logical fallacies. Nevertheless, even among educated persons there are many who do not even attain this relatively modest level of development. According to my personal observations, lack of logical ability may be due to various circumstances. In the first place, I mention lack of general intelligence, insufficient power of concentration, and absence of formal education. Secondly, however, I have noticed that many people are unable, or sometimes rather unwilling, to argue ex hypothesi; such persons cannot, or will not, start from premisses which they know or believe to be false or even from premisses whose truth is not, in their opinion, sufficient ly warranted. Or, if they agree to start from such premisses, they sooner or later stray away from the argument into attempts first to settle the truth or falsehood of the premisses. Presumably this attitude results either from lack of imagination or from undue moral rectitude. On the other hand, proficiency in logical reasoning is not in itself a guarantee for a clear theoretic insight into the principles and foundations of logic.
Category: Philosophy