AMERICAN PENDULUM RECURRING DEBATES IN US GRAND STRATEGY CORNELL STUDIES IN SECURITY AFFAIRS

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American Pendulum

Author : Christopher Hemmer
ISBN : 9781501701184
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.32 MB
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As new presidential administrations come into power, they each bring their own approach to foreign policy. No grand strategy, however, is going to be completely novel. New administrations never start with a blank slate, so it is always possible to see similarities between an administration and its predecessors. Conversely, since each administration faces novel problems and operates in a unique context, no foreign policy strategy is going to be an exact replica of its predecessors. In American Pendulum, Christopher Hemmer examines America's grand strategic choices between 1914 and 2014 using four recurring debates in American foreign policy as lenses. First, how should the United States balance the trade-offs between working alone versus working with other states and international organizations? Second, what is the proper place of American values in foreign policy? Third, where does the strategic perimeter of the United States lie? And fourth, is time on the side of the United States or of its enemies? Offering new readings of debates within the Wilson, Truman, Nixon, Bush, and Obama administrations, Hemmer asserts that heated debates, disagreements, and even confusions over U.S. grand strategy are not only normal but also beneficial. He challenges the claim that uncertainties or inconsistences about the nation's role in the world or approach to security issues betray strategic confusion or the absence of a grand strategy. American foreign policy, he states, is most in danger not when debates are at their most pointed but when the weight of opinion crushes dissent. As the United States looks ahead to an increasingly multipolar world with increasing complicated security issues, Hemmer concludes, developing an effective grand strategy requires ongoing contestation and compromises between competing visions and policies.
Category: Political Science

Emergent Strategy And Grand Strategy

Author : Ionut Popescu
ISBN : 9781421423777
Genre : History
File Size : 90.11 MB
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"Ionut Popescu explores how successful American grand strategy comes about. For most experts in the academic world of political science and in the Washington policymaking community, the answer lies in the design and implementation of a farsighted strategic plan or framework. The role of such a Grand Design is to guide the president's foreign policy actions and resource allocation decisions in the pursuit of specific long-term objectives. The alternative to following a Grand Design is usually said to consist of ad-hoc, incoherent, and ultimately unsuccessful foreign policy decision-making. But what if successful grand strategies are sometimes formed through an emergent process of learning and adaptation, instead of being the product of strategic planning and farsighted designs? Popescu argues that the Emergent Strategy model, adapted from the business strategy literature, explains some of the traditional success stories and failures of American grand strategy better than the prevalent Grand Design model. These findings suggest the need to shift the focus of policymakers away from planning for long-term objectives and toward short- and medium-term incremental learning and adaptation. Based on this new theoretical understanding of successful grand strategy being formed by either Design or Emergent elements depending on the circumstances, the book also offers a framework to help policymakers and strategic planners choose the right model and tools based on the level of uncertainty they face in the external environment"--
Category: History

Poland In Transatlantic Relations After 1989

Author : Małgorzata Zachara
ISBN : 9781527507401
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 74.39 MB
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This volume brings together a number of scholars from a variety of disciplines to examine the phenomenon of the transformation of Poland within the context of regional and global power relations, focusing in particular on analyses of the country’s political and social development within the area of transatlantic relations. It provides a distinct view on the current dynamics and future perspectives of the transatlantic alliance. At a time when the story of Poland as the shining example of post-Communist success and European integration has been interrupted, several other leading narratives of the Western world also appear to be in danger: western values cannot be considered to be universal, the message of globalization has lost its power, and the structure of the international order is described in increasingly delusional terms. The study sheds light on features of Poland’s performance on the regional scene and will stimulate discussion about the lessons that may be learned from the Polish experience by other states facing the challenges of transformation. The last 25 years of Polish history represent the unquestioned success of this political concept. Poland has become an independent actor able to take responsibility for its own future, thanks to the favorable configuration of global powers and the support provided by international leaders. Was this merely a historical episode that created an opportunity for one actor? Can this scenario be repeated? Under what conditions?
Category: Social Science

Ulusal G Venlik Stratejisi

Author : Hasan Basri Yalçın
ISBN : 9789752459052
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52.68 MB
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Bu kitap ulusal güvenlik stratejileri üzerinedir. Çağdaş ulusal güvenlik belgelerinin ne yönde ilerlediğini inceleyecek ve bunun nedenlerini açıklamaya çalışacaktır. Bu amaçla Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi’nin beş daimi üyesinin son ikişer ulusal güvenlik strateji belgesi ayrıntılı bir biçimde ele alınacaktır. Toplam on belge üzerinde büyük güçler olarak isimlendirilebilecek uluslararası aktörlerin ulusal güvenliklerini korumak için nasıl plan yaptıkları ortaya konulacaktır. Bu devletlerin (ABD, İngiltere, Fransa, Rusya ve Çin) güvenlikten ne anladıkları ve güvenliği nasıl tanımladıkları tartışılacaktır. Söz konusu aktörlerin ulusal güvenlik belgelerine göre güvenlik sadece devletler arası bir olgu mudur yoksa devlet dışı aktör ve faktörler de güvenlik için hesaba katılır mı? Güvenlik tehditleri somut bir biçimde mi tanımlanmaktadır yoksa soyut halleriyle mi bırakılmaktadır? Güvenlik kavramsallaştırmasının arkasındaki stratejik zihniyet nedir? Güvenlik kavramsallaştırmasını doğuran analizin dayandığı teorik zihniyet nasıl çalışmaktadır? Öncelikle bu ve benzeri sorulara cevaplar aranarak son dönem ulusal güvenlik strateji belgelerini oluşturan zihniyetin ne yöne evrildiği ve bunun ne tür güvenlik kavramsallaştırmaları ürettiği araştırılacaktır. Bu kavramsallaştırmaların ulusal güvenlik strateji belgesinde ortaya konan tehdit ya da önerilen stratejik yöntemlere katkısının olup olmadığı meselesi değerlendirilecektir.
Category: Political Science

Das Omnivoren Dilemma

Author : Michael Pollan
ISBN : 9783641119805
Genre : Cooking
File Size : 37.41 MB
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Das Standardwerk über vernünftige Ernährung Der Mensch gehört von der Konsititution seiner Verdauungsorgane her zu den Omnivoren, den Allesfressern. Das war in der Evolution sicherlich nützlich. Doch das heutige Überangebot von Nahrungsmitteln in Supermärkten und Schnellrestaurants bringt nicht nur ihn selbst körperlich an den Rand des Abgrunds, sondern ruiniert auch noch seinen Lebensraum und sein soziales Umfeld. Mit Biss und investigativer Recherche sieht sich Pollan um, wie unsere Nahrungsmittel hergestellt und verarbeitet werden, vom Maisfeld über Cheeseburger mit Pommes bis zum Öko-Menü. Er öffnet uns die Augen für unser gestörtes Essverhalten und für den Weg zurück zu Einfachheit und Genuss.
Category: Cooking

Das Neue Russland

Author : Michail Gorbatschow
ISBN : 9783732513772
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 84.17 MB
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Nach Jahren der Annäherung ist das Verhältnis zwischen Deutschland und Russland so angespannt wie seit mehr als 25 Jahren nicht mehr. Was Putin antreibt, warum er die Konfrontation mit dem Westen sucht und den Rückfall in den Kalten Krieg in Kauf nimmt, ist vielen ein Rätsel. Nicht Michail Gorbatschow. Mit einzigartiger Kennerschaft beschreibt er die Entstehung des "Systems Putin" und die Absichten dieses Mannes. Unverblümt rechnet er mit Putin ab. Dieser zerstöre um seiner eigenen Macht willen die Errungenschaften der Perestroika in Russland und errichte ein System ohne Zukunft. Deshalb fordert Gorbatschow ein neues politisches System für Russland, und er mahnt den Westen, nicht mit dem Feuer zu spielen. Ein wichtiges, ein notwendiges Buch, das neue Blickwinkel eröffnet - und das politische Vermächtnis des großen Mannes, der die deutsche Einheit mitermöglichte.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Mangroven In S Damerika

Author : Stefanie Benner
ISBN : 9783640600243
Genre :
File Size : 47.89 MB
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich Geowissenschaften / Geographie - Phys. Geogr., Geomorphologie, Umweltforschung, Note: 1,7, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz (Geographisches Institut), Veranstaltung: Hauptseminar zur Physischen Geographie von Sudamerika, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Bei Mangroven handelt es sich gleichzeitig um eine Baumart und eine Pflanzenformation. Der Begriff stammt vom Wort manggi." Er wurde von den Guarani, einem einheimischen Volk in Sudamerika, gepragt und bedeutet krummer Baum." Die Benennung geht auf eine bestimmte Mangrovenart zuruck, die Rote Mangrove. Die Bezeichnung manggi" beschreibt die Wuchsform der Pflanze (MEXIKO-LEXIKON 2008). Mangroven sind vor allem im Gezeitenbereich von Lagunen und Astuaren des Kustenraums" (SCHMIDT 1995: 128) zu finden. Sie konnen jedoch nicht nur auf Schlickuntergrund wachsen, sondern auch auf Sandboden und sogar nackten Korallenriffen (LERCH 1980: 173). Viele verschiedene Meeres- und Landorganismen teilen sich den Lebensraum in den Mangrovensumpfen der tropischen und subtropischen Kusten," wie zum Beispiel Vogel, Insekten, Fische, Krebse und Algen (LIGHTHOUSE FOUNDATION o. J.). Es handelt sich um ein bedeutendes Okosystem, dessen Stellenwert im Laufe der Arbeit noch erlautert werden wird. Das Holz wird unter anderem zum Haus- und Bootsbau, als Brennholz und zur Holzkohleproduktion genutzt" (ELSTER 1997: 2). D]ie Blatter der Mangroven konnen als Viehfutter dienen" (ELSTER 1997: 2). Einige der Pflanzen finden sogar Anwendung in der Medizin (ELSTER 1997: 2). Um die Nutzung der Mangrove zu erlautern, mussen zunachst ihre Merkmale und Anpassungen aufgefuhrt werden. Zu ihnen gehoren unter anderem die Wurzelsysteme und Salzvertraglichkeiten der Pflanzen. Im Anschluss stellt sich die Frage des Vorkommens und der Bedeutung der Mangrove. An welche Faktoren ist das Auftreten der Pflanzenformation in Sudamerika gebunden? Nutzung und Probleme, wie die Zerstorung, werden exemplarisch an drei R
Category:

Sch Ner Wird S Nicht

Author : David Sedaris
ISBN : 9783641135713
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 86.1 MB
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Dem Alltag wohnt der Wahnwitz inne. David Sedaris weiß das nur zu gut. Das Beste an seinem Leben ist, dass er darüber Buch führt. Er erläutert, wie man sich mit Schallplattenhüllen vor psychopathischen Singvögeln schützt, was modische Herrenaccessoirs über Erektionsstörungen verraten und warum man in Tokio weder Japanisch lernen noch mit dem Rauchen aufhören sollte.
Category: Fiction