AEROGELS HANDBOOK

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Aerogels Handbook

Author : Michel Andre Aegerter
ISBN : 1441975896
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34.65 MB
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Aerogels are the lightest solids known. Up to 1000 times lighter than glass and with a density as low as only four times that of air, they show very high thermal, electrical and acoustic insulation values and hold many entries in Guinness World Records. Originally based on silica, R&D efforts have extended this class of materials to non-silicate inorganic oxides, natural and synthetic organic polymers, carbon, metal and ceramic materials, etc. Composite systems involving polymer-crosslinked aerogels and interpenetrating hybrid networks have been developed and exhibit remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility. Even more exotic aerogels based on clays, chalcogenides, phosphides, quantum dots, and biopolymers such as chitosan are opening new applications for the construction, transportation, energy, defense and healthcare industries. Applications in electronics, chemistry, mechanics, engineering, energy production and storage, sensors, medicine, nanotechnology, military and aerospace, oil and gas recovery, thermal insulation and household uses are being developed with an estimated annual market growth rate of around 70% until 2015. The Aerogels Handbook summarizes state-of-the-art developments and processing of inorganic, organic, and composite aerogels, including the most important methods of synthesis, characterization as well as their typical applications and their possible market impact. Readers will find an exhaustive overview of all aerogel materials known today, their fabrication, upscaling aspects, physical and chemical properties, and most recent advances towards applications and commercial products, some of which are commercially available today. Key Features: •Edited and written by recognized worldwide leaders in the field •Appeals to a broad audience of materials scientists, chemists, and engineers in academic research and industrial R&D •Covers inorganic, organic, and composite aerogels •Describes military, aerospace, building industry, household, environmental, energy, and biomedical applications among others
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Sol Gel Handbook

Author : David Levy
ISBN : 9783527670840
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.15 MB
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This comprehensive three-volume handbook brings together a review of the current state together with the latest developments in sol-gel technology to put forward new ideas. The first volume, dedicated to synthesis and shaping, gives an in-depth overview of the wet-chemical processes that constitute the core of the sol-gel method and presents the various pathways for the successful synthesis of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic materials, bio- and bio-inspired materials, powders, particles and fibers as well as sol-gel derived thin films, coatings and surfaces. The second volume deals with the mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived materials and the methods for their characterization such as diffraction methods and nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The third volume concentrates on the various applications in the fields of membrane science, catalysis, energy research, biomaterials science, biomedicine, photonics and electronics.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Sol Gel Handbook

Author : David Levy
ISBN : 9783527334865
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.4 MB
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This comprehensive three-volume handbook brings together a review of the current state together with the latest developments in sol-gel technology to put forward new ideas. The first volume, dedicated to synthesis and shaping, gives an in-depth overview of the wet-chemical processes that constitute the core of the sol-gel method and presents the various pathways for the successful synthesis of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic materials, bio- and bio-inspired materials, powders, particles and fibers as well as sol-gel derived thin films, coatings and surfaces. The second volume deals with the mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived materials and the methods for their characterization such as diffraction methods and nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The third volume concentrates on the various applications in the fields of membrane science, catalysis, energy research, biomaterials science, biomedicine, photonics and electronics.
Category: Science

Aerospace Materials Handbook

Author : Sam Zhang
ISBN : 9781439873304
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 83.36 MB
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Whether an airplane or a space shuttle, a flying machine requires advanced materials to provide a strong, lightweight body and a powerful engine that functions at high temperature. The Aerospace Materials Handbook examines these materials, covering traditional superalloys as well as more recently developed light alloys. Capturing state-of-the-art developments in materials research for aeronautical and aerospace applications, this book provides a timely reference for both newcomers and veteran researchers in the field. The chapters address developments in bulk materials, coatings, traditional materials, and new materials. Beginning with an overview of superalloys, including nickel-, nickel–iron-, and cobalt-based superalloys, the text covers machining, laser cladding and alloying, corrosion performance, high-temperature oxidation, thermal spraying, and nanostructured coatings. It also includes four categories of composites used in aerospace: metal matrix, polymer, carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer, and self-healing composites. The text describes preparation, processing, and fatigue of lightweight magnesium alloys, as well as an exciting new class of materials—aerogels. This book brings readers to the cutting edge of research in materials for aerospace and aeronautics. It provides an entry point into this field and presents details to stimulate future research. This unique, up-to-date resource offers knowledge to enable practitioners to develop faster, more efficient, and more reliable air- and spacecraft.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 3 Applications Of Sol Gel Technology

Author : Sumio Sakka
ISBN : 1402079680
Genre : Ceramic materials
File Size : 22.4 MB
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:
Category: Ceramic materials

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author : Peter Rudolph
ISBN : 9780444633064
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.57 MB
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries
Category: Science

Advances In Bioceramics And Porous Ceramics Vii

Author : Roger Narayan
ISBN : 9781119040408
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45.39 MB
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A collection of 15 papers from The American Ceramic Society’s 38th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, held in Daytona Beach, Florida, January 26-31, 2014. This issue includes papers presented in Symposium 5 - Next Generation Bioceramics and Biocomposites and Symposium 9 - Porous Ceramics: Novel Developments and Applications.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Insulation Handbook

Author : Bynum
ISBN : 0071348727
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34.27 MB
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Plan, implement, and troubleshoot any type of insulation application Invaluable to anyone who wants an in-depth understanding of thermal insulation, Insulation Handbook, by Richard T. Bynum and Daniel L. Rubino, is a thorough guide to all the important methods, materials, and concepts associated with it, along with sound problem-solving advice. You’ll slash construction time and costs while maximizing energy efficiency with this “A-Z” overview of residential installation. The authors, experts with hands-on construction and design experience, provide the rock-solid help you need to: Evaluate the pros and cons of today’s most commonly used materials -- including loose fill, batts, blankets, spray-on, and boards – as well as cutting-edge technologies still under development Decide upon the best insulation strategy Work within the framework of codes, standards, and regulations Achieve optimum thermal comfort in any home Understand innovative insulation systems such as ICFs (insulated concrete formwork), SIPs (structured insulated panels) and drainable-type EIFs Prevent damages caused by moisture accumulation Solve the problems presented by asbestos and other dangerous materials Obtain information from manufacturers and suppliers More!
Category: Technology & Engineering