AEROGELS HANDBOOK ADVANCES IN SOL GEL DERIVED MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES

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Aerogels Handbook

Author : Michel Andre Aegerter
ISBN : 1441975896
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.93 MB
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Aerogels are the lightest solids known. Up to 1000 times lighter than glass and with a density as low as only four times that of air, they show very high thermal, electrical and acoustic insulation values and hold many entries in Guinness World Records. Originally based on silica, R&D efforts have extended this class of materials to non-silicate inorganic oxides, natural and synthetic organic polymers, carbon, metal and ceramic materials, etc. Composite systems involving polymer-crosslinked aerogels and interpenetrating hybrid networks have been developed and exhibit remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility. Even more exotic aerogels based on clays, chalcogenides, phosphides, quantum dots, and biopolymers such as chitosan are opening new applications for the construction, transportation, energy, defense and healthcare industries. Applications in electronics, chemistry, mechanics, engineering, energy production and storage, sensors, medicine, nanotechnology, military and aerospace, oil and gas recovery, thermal insulation and household uses are being developed with an estimated annual market growth rate of around 70% until 2015. The Aerogels Handbook summarizes state-of-the-art developments and processing of inorganic, organic, and composite aerogels, including the most important methods of synthesis, characterization as well as their typical applications and their possible market impact. Readers will find an exhaustive overview of all aerogel materials known today, their fabrication, upscaling aspects, physical and chemical properties, and most recent advances towards applications and commercial products, some of which are commercially available today. Key Features: •Edited and written by recognized worldwide leaders in the field •Appeals to a broad audience of materials scientists, chemists, and engineers in academic research and industrial R&D •Covers inorganic, organic, and composite aerogels •Describes military, aerospace, building industry, household, environmental, energy, and biomedical applications among others
Category: Technology & Engineering

Sol Gel Materials For Energy Environment And Electronic Applications

Author : Suresh C. Pillai
ISBN : 9783319501444
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.74 MB
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This volume provides expert coverage of the state-of-the-art in sol-gel materials for functional applications in energy, environment and electronics. The use of sol-gel technology has become a hotbed for cutting edge developments in many fields due to the accessibility of advanced materials through low energy processes. The book offers a broad view of this growing research area from basic science through high-level applications with the potential for commercialization and industrial use. Taking an integrated approach, expert chapters present a wide range of topics, from photocatalysts, solar cells and optics, to thin films and materials for energy storage and conversion, demonstrating the combined use of chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering in the search for solutions to some of the most challenging problems of our time.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Porous Lightweight Composites Reinforced With Fibrous Structures

Author : Yiqi Yang
ISBN : 9783662538043
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89.71 MB
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This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on lightweight composites made from multiple materials via diverse processing technologies. The lightweight composites are featured for their potential to be basic construction units in a variety of areas, especially automotive, civil engineering, aerospace engineering, etc. Emphasis will be on how fibers or fibrous structures reinforce the composites. The subject of the book is to provide a comprehensive understanding on the raw materials, processing technologies, performance properties, and end uses of lightweight composites.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Material Engineering And Mechanical Engineering

Author : Huiyu Zhou
ISBN : 9789814759694
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43.33 MB
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The aim of proceeding of International Conference on Material Engineering and Mechanical Engineering [MEME2015] is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers, and academicians, as well as industrial professionals, to present their research results and applications developed for Material Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. It provides an opportunities for the delegates to exchange new ideas and application experiences, to enhance business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration. The object is to strengthen national academic exchanges and cooperation in the field, promote the rapid development of machinery, materials science and engineering application, effectively improve China's machinery, materials science and engineering applications in the field of academic status and international influence. Contents:Mechanics:Basic Mechanics and Research MethodsThermodynamicsDynamics and VibrationBiomechanicsVarious MechanicsMaterial Science and Material Processing Technology:CompositeNano MaterialsSteelCeramicsPolymer Readership: Graduate students and researchers in the field of mechanics engineering and materials engineering.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Biomedical Applications Of Polymeric Materials And Composites

Author : Raju Francis
ISBN : 9783527338368
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73.70 MB
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With its content taken from only the very latest results, this is an extensive summary of the various polymeric materials used for biomedical applications. Following an introduction listing various functional polymers, including conductive, biocompatible and conjugated polymers, the book goes on to discuss different synthetic polymers that can be used, for example, as hydrogels, biochemical sensors, functional surfaces, and natural degradable materials. Throughout, the focus is on applications, with worked examples for training purposes as well as case studies included. The whole is rounded off with a look at future trends.
Category: Medical

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author : Peter Rudolph
ISBN : 9780444633064
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.41 MB
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries
Category: Science

The Sol Gel Handbook

Author : David Levy
ISBN : 9783527670840
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66.3 MB
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This comprehensive three-volume handbook brings together a review of the current state together with the latest developments in sol-gel technology to put forward new ideas. The first volume, dedicated to synthesis and shaping, gives an in-depth overview of the wet-chemical processes that constitute the core of the sol-gel method and presents the various pathways for the successful synthesis of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic materials, bio- and bio-inspired materials, powders, particles and fibers as well as sol-gel derived thin films, coatings and surfaces. The second volume deals with the mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived materials and the methods for their characterization such as diffraction methods and nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The third volume concentrates on the various applications in the fields of membrane science, catalysis, energy research, biomaterials science, biomedicine, photonics and electronics.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 3 Applications Of Sol Gel Technology

Author : Sumio Sakka
ISBN : 1402079680
Genre : Ceramic materials
File Size : 66.66 MB
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:
Category: Ceramic materials

Sol Gel Nanocomposites

Author : Massimo Guglielmi
ISBN : 9781493912094
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 62.13 MB
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This book provides comprehensive coverage of nanocomposite materials obtained by the sol-gel method, from synthesis to applications and including design tools for combining different properties. Sol-gel nanocomposites are of great interest in meeting processing and application requirements for the development of multifunctional materials. These materials are already commercialized for a number of applications from scratch-resistant and anti-adhesive coatings to optical materials with active and passive properties. Biomedical applications, holographic recordings, fuel cells and hydrogen storage, resists and catalysts are among the potential uses. The novel mechanical, optical and electronic properties of nanocomposite materials depend not only on the individual component materials, but also on their morphology and nanoscale interfacial characteristics. Sol-gel is a highly versatile method for obtaining both the matrix and the filler of the nanocomposite and for chemically adjusting the interface to optimize structure and properties. Although nanocomposites are widely discussed in the literature, the focus has been mainly on polymer nanocomposites. This book addresses nanocomposites based on inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic matrices, with an emphasis on the scientific principles which are the basis for nanocomposite sol-gel synthesis and applications. A didactic approach is followed, with different topics developed from a fundamental point of view together with key examples and case studies. First comprehensive treatment of nanocomposites obtained by sol-gel methods Focuses on nanocomposites with inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic matrices Describes design tools to optimize structure and properties for various applications Covers synthesis, processing, characterization, and modeling Uses first principles to describe the influence of interfacial characteristics on materials properties Presents case studies for both films and bulk applications Provides examples of products on the market, with descriptions of the scientific principles at the base of their success Includes contributions from recognized leaders in this multidisciplinary area.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 1 Sol Gel Processing

Author : Sumio Sakka
ISBN : 1402079664
Genre : Science
File Size : 24.93 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:
Category: Science