A PROOF THEORY FOR DESCRIPTION LOGICS SPRINGERBRIEFS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
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Description Logics (DLs) is a family of formalisms used to represent knowledge of a domain. They are equipped with a formal logic-based semantics. Knowledge representation systems based on description logics provide various inference capabilities that deduce implicit knowledge from the explicitly represented knowledge. A Proof Theory for Description Logics introduces Sequent Calculi and Natural Deduction for some DLs (ALC, ALCQ). Cut-elimination and Normalization are proved for the calculi. The author argues that such systems can improve the extraction of computational content from DLs proofs for explanation purposes.
Since the advent of the Semantic Web, interest in the dynamics of ontologies (ontology evolution) has grown significantly. Belief revision presents a good theoretical framework for dealing with this problem; however, classical belief revision is not well suited for logics such as Description Logics. Belief Revision in Non-Classical Logics presents a framework which can be applied to a wide class of logics that include – besides most Description Logics such as the ones behind OWL – Horn Logic and Intuitionistic logic, amongst others. The author also presents algorithms for the most important constructions in belief bases. Researchers and practitioners in theoretical computing will find this an invaluable resource.
Adapted from a modular undergraduate course on computational mathematics, Concise Computer Mathematics delivers an easily accessible, self-contained introduction to the basic notions of mathematics necessary for a computer science degree. The text reflects the need to quickly introduce students from a variety of educational backgrounds to a number of essential mathematical concepts. The material is divided into four units: discrete mathematics (sets, relations, functions), logic (Boolean types, truth tables, proofs), linear algebra (vectors, matrices and graphics), and special topics (graph theory, number theory, basic elements of calculus). The chapters contain a brief theoretical presentation of the topic, followed by a selection of problems (which are direct applications of the theory) and additional supplementary problems (which may require a bit more work). Each chapter ends with answers or worked solutions for all of the problems.
This Brief presents steps towards elaborating a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a specific version of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic. It begins with a short survey of main interpretations of quantum mechanics already proposed, as well as various models of many-valued logics and previous attempts to apply them for the description of quantum phenomena. The prospective many-valued interpretation of quantum mechanics is soundly based on a theorem concerning the isomorphic representation of Birkhoff-von Neumann quantum logic in the form of a special Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic endowed with partially defined conjunctions and disjunctions.
This volume considers the computational complexity of determining whether a system of equations over a fixed algebra A has a solution. It examines in detail the two problems this leads to: SysTermSat(A) and SysPolSat(A), in which equations are built out of terms or polynomials, respectively. The book characterizes those algebras for which SysPolSat can be solved in a polynomial time. So far, studies and their outcomes have not covered algebras that generate a variety admitting type 1 in the sense of Tame Congruence Theory. Since unary algebras admit only type 1, this book focuses on these algebras to tackle the main problem. It discusses several aspects of unary algebras and proves that the Constraint Satisfaction Problem for relational structures is polynomially equivalent to SysTermSat over unary algebras. The book’s final chapters discuss partial characterizations, present conclusions, and describe the problems that are still open.