A PROOF THEORY FOR DESCRIPTION LOGICS SPRINGERBRIEFS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

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Description Logics (DLs) is a family of formalisms used to represent knowledge of a domain. They are equipped with a formal logic-based semantics. Knowledge representation systems based on description logics provide various inference capabilities that deduce implicit knowledge from the explicitly represented knowledge. A Proof Theory for Description Logics introduces Sequent Calculi and Natural Deduction for some DLs (ALC, ALCQ). Cut-elimination and Normalization are proved for the calculi. The author argues that such systems can improve the extraction of computational content from DLs proofs for explanation purposes.

Since the advent of the Semantic Web, interest in the dynamics of ontologies (ontology evolution) has grown significantly. Belief revision presents a good theoretical framework for dealing with this problem; however, classical belief revision is not well suited for logics such as Description Logics. Belief Revision in Non-Classical Logics presents a framework which can be applied to a wide class of logics that include – besides most Description Logics such as the ones behind OWL – Horn Logic and Intuitionistic logic, amongst others. The author also presents algorithms for the most important constructions in belief bases. Researchers and practitioners in theoretical computing will find this an invaluable resource.

Adapted from a modular undergraduate course on computational mathematics, Concise Computer Mathematics delivers an easily accessible, self-contained introduction to the basic notions of mathematics necessary for a computer science degree. The text reflects the need to quickly introduce students from a variety of educational backgrounds to a number of essential mathematical concepts. The material is divided into four units: discrete mathematics (sets, relations, functions), logic (Boolean types, truth tables, proofs), linear algebra (vectors, matrices and graphics), and special topics (graph theory, number theory, basic elements of calculus). The chapters contain a brief theoretical presentation of the topic, followed by a selection of problems (which are direct applications of the theory) and additional supplementary problems (which may require a bit more work). Each chapter ends with answers or worked solutions for all of the problems.

Author : Mordechai Ben-Ari
ISBN : 9781447141297
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 90.79 MB
Format : PDF
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Mathematical Logic for Computer Science is a mathematics textbook with theorems and proofs, but the choice of topics has been guided by the needs of students of computer science. The method of semantic tableaux provides an elegant way to teach logic that is both theoretically sound and easy to understand. The uniform use of tableaux-based techniques facilitates learning advanced logical systems based on what the student has learned from elementary systems. The logical systems presented are: propositional logic, first-order logic, resolution and its application to logic programming, Hoare logic for the verification of sequential programs, and linear temporal logic for the verification of concurrent programs. The third edition has been entirely rewritten and includes new chapters on central topics of modern computer science: SAT solvers and model checking.

Author : Michal Forišek
ISBN : 9781447150190
Genre : Education
File Size : 66.73 MB
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There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the "classic textbook" algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes for teachers based on the authors’ experiences when using the metaphor in a classroom setting.

Author : Pär J. Ågerfalk
ISBN : 9783319172668
Genre : Computers
File Size : 81.85 MB
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This SpringerBrief discusses multiple forms of open-source-inspired outsourcing: opensourcing, innersourcing and crowdsourcing. It uses a framework-based comparison to explain the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. By pointing out characteristics along with benefits and pitfalls of each approach, the authors provide nuanced and research-based advice to managers and developers facing software sourcing decisions. The differences and commonalities of these three emerging approaches are carefully analyzed. Chapters explore the primary challenges of reliability, efficiency and robustness in open-source methods. Examples from industrial cases are included, along with extensive references to recent research. The brief concludes with a comparative analysis of approaches and outlines key implications to be aware of when outsourcing. Software Sourcing in the Age of Open: Leveraging the Unknown Workforce is designed for professionals and researchers interested in outsourcing challenges. The content is also suitable for postgraduate students interested in contemporary software sourcing approaches.

This Brief presents steps towards elaborating a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a specific version of Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic. It begins with a short survey of main interpretations of quantum mechanics already proposed, as well as various models of many-valued logics and previous attempts to apply them for the description of quantum phenomena. The prospective many-valued interpretation of quantum mechanics is soundly based on a theorem concerning the isomorphic representation of Birkhoff-von Neumann quantum logic in the form of a special Łukasiewicz infinite-valued logic endowed with partially defined conjunctions and disjunctions.

Author : Charles Hall
ISBN : 1441993983
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.6 MB
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For the past 150 years, economics has been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled as a circular flow of income between producers and consumers. In this “perpetual motion” of interactions between firms that produce and households that consume, little or no accounting is given of the flow of energy and materials from the environment and back again. In the standard economic model, energy and matter are completely recycled in these transactions, and economic activity is seemingly exempt from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. As we enter the second half of the age of oil, and as energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption become major issues on the world stage, this exemption appears illusory at best. In Energy and the Wealth of Nations, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our “petroleum economy.” Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation between energy and the wealth explosion of the 20th century, the failure of markets to recognize or efficiently allocate diminishing resources, the economic consequences of peak oil, the EROI for finding and exploiting new oil fields, and whether alternative energy technologies such as wind and solar power meet the minimum EROI requirements needed to run our society as we know it. This book is an essential read for all scientists and economists who have recognized the urgent need for a more scientific, unified approach to economics in an energy-constrained world, and serves as an ideal teaching text for the growing number of courses, such as the authors’ own, on the role of energy in society.

Adapted from a modular undergraduate course on computational mathematics, Concise Computer Mathematics delivers an easily accessible, self-contained introduction to the basic notions of mathematics necessary for a computer science degree. The text reflects the need to quickly introduce students from a variety of educational backgrounds to a number of essential mathematical concepts. The material is divided into four units: discrete mathematics (sets, relations, functions), logic (Boolean types, truth tables, proofs), linear algebra (vectors, matrices and graphics), and special topics (graph theory, number theory, basic elements of calculus). The chapters contain a brief theoretical presentation of the topic, followed by a selection of problems (which are direct applications of the theory) and additional supplementary problems (which may require a bit more work). Each chapter ends with answers or worked solutions for all of the problems.