A Peace To End All Peace

Author : David Fromkin
ISBN : 1429988525
Genre : History
File Size : 34.99 MB
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Published with a new afterword from the author—the classic, bestselling account of how the modern Middle East was created The Middle East has long been a region of rival religions, ideologies, nationalisms, and ambitions. All of these conflicts—including the hostilities between Arabs and Israelis, and the violent challenges posed by Iraq's competing sects—are rooted in the region's political inheritance: the arrangements, unities, and divisions imposed by the Allies after the First World War. In A Peace to End All Peace, David Fromkin reveals how and why the Allies drew lines on an empty map that remade the geography and politics of the Middle East. Focusing on the formative years of 1914 to 1922, when all seemed possible, he delivers in this sweeping and magisterial book the definitive account of this defining time, showing how the choices narrowed and the Middle East began along a road that led to the conflicts and confusion that continue to this day. A new afterword from Fromkin, written for this edition of the book, includes his invaluable, updated assessment of this region of the world today, and on what this history has to teach us.
Category: History

Das Bewegliche Vorurteil

Author : Christina von Braun
ISBN : 3826028201
Genre : Antisemitism
File Size : 26.23 MB
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Im Gefolge des israelisch-palästinensischen Konflikts, der 2. Intifada, des Terroranschlags vom 11. September und des Irakkriegs ist eine neue Debatte über den Antisemitismus in Gang gekommen. Sie bezieht sich auf die Welle antijüdischer Gewalt in Frankreich 2000/2001, aber beispielsweise auch auf die hoch politisierte Debatte über das antijüdische Pogrom von Jedwabne in Polen während der NS-Okkupation 2000/2001, den großen Erfolg antijüdischer Fernsehsendungen in den Medien Ägyptens 2002/03 mit Motiven aus den "Protokollen der Weisen von Zion" oder das Wiederaufleben der 'eurasischen' Ideologie in Russland. Ebenso verschieden sind Motivationen oder Trägergruppen: Neonazis, Islamisten (insbesondere gewaltbereite junge Männer), Rechtsextremisten sowie Antiamerikanisten, antizionistische Teile der europäischen Linken, aber auch ganz normale Bürger, die in Israel einen Hauptfaktor für die Bedrohung des Weltfriedens sehen. Der französische Politologe P.-A. Taguieff leitete 2001 aus der Gewalt muslimischer Islamisten seine These einer neuen "Judeophobie" ab: Während der alte europäische Antisemitismus ein spezifischer Rassismus war, der sich gegen die Juden richtete, kehre die neue Judenfeindschaft den Vorwurf von Rassismus und Genozid gegen "die Juden" selbst. Verbunden damit ist die Frage, ob der Antisemitismus in Europa zugenommen habe, ja eskaliere. Ob dies empirisch nachweisbar ist, ist ebenso umstritten wie die Frage, ob es wirklich sinnvoll ist, von einem "neuen" Antisemitismus zu sprechen. So meinen einige, der Begriff des Antisemitismus werde damit seiner Schärfe beraubt. Dieser Einwand entspräche dem Ansatz der 'klassischen' Vorurteilsforschung der Frankfurter Schule, die von "'beweglichem' Vorurteil" sprach. Das betonte den funktionalen Charakter des Antisemitismus und implizierte per definitionem die Anpassung an immer neue politische Bedingungen. Chr. von Braun / E.-M. Ziege: Einführung - H. Cancik: Der antike Antisemitismus und seine Rezeption in der Moderne - R. Rürup: Antisemitismus und moderne Gesellschaft. Antijüdisches Denken und antijüdische Agitation im späten 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert - Ph. Burrin: Über den Antisemitismus der Nationalsozialisten - W. Bergmann: Formen und Funktionen des Antisemitismus in Europa nach 1945 - R. Erb: "Epigonen und Importeure". Antisemitismus im Zeitalter globaler Kommunikation im 20. Jahrhundert - M. Hausleitner: Der rumänische Holocaust und die Holocaust-Kontroverse in Rumänien - G. Nordbruch: Modernisierung, Anti-Modernismus, Globalisierung. Judenbilder, Verschwörungstheorien und gesellschaftlicher Wandel in der arabischen Welt - V. Rossmann: Anti-Semitism and Geopolitics in Post-Communist Russia - B. Kosmala: Die polnisch-jüdischen Beziehungen nach 1945 und die aktuelle Holocaust-Debatte in Polen - P.-A. Taguieff: Die Neue Judenfeindschaft in Frankreich. Israelophobie und Palästinophilie, Islamisierung und Antizionismus
Category: Antisemitism

Der Krieg Um Bergkarabach

Author : Erich Reiter
ISBN : 3205784049
Genre : Bergkarabach - Regionalkonflikt - Konfliktlösung - Aufsatzsammlung
File Size : 28.27 MB
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Category: Bergkarabach - Regionalkonflikt - Konfliktlösung - Aufsatzsammlung

The Emergence Of Minorities In The Middle East The Politics Of Community In French Mandate Syria

Author : Benjamin Thomas White
ISBN : 9780748688937
Genre : History
File Size : 73.92 MB
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Shows which historical developments led people to start describing themselves and others as 'minorities'Through close attention to what changed in French-mandate Syria, and what those changes entailed, Benjamin White argues for a careful reappraisal of the term 'minority'. Within a few years of World War I, the term had become fundamental to public understandings of national and international politics, law and society. Minorities (and majorities) were taken to be an objective reality, both in the present and the past. In Syria, the mandate period saw the consolidation of the nation-state form, despite French attempts to create territorial, political and legal divisions. There was a trend towards a coherent national territory with fixed borders and uniform state authority within them, while the struggle to control the state was played out in the language of nationalism - developments in the post-Ottoman Levant that closely paralleled events in Europe at the same time, following the demise of the Austro-Hungarian and tsarist empires. Through close attention to what changed in French mandate Syria, and what those changes meant, the book argues for a careful rethinking of a term too often used as an objective description of reality.
Category: History

Minority Rights In The Middle East

Author : Joshua Castellino
ISBN : 9780191668883
Genre : Law
File Size : 49.87 MB
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Within the Middle East there are a wide range of minority groups outside the mainstream religious and ethnic culture. This book provides a detailed examination of their rights as minorities within this region, and their changing status throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The rights of minorities in the Middle East are subject to a range of legal frameworks, having developed in part from Islamic law, and in recent years subject to international human rights law and institutional frameworks. The book examines the context in which minority rights operate within this conflicted region, investigating how minorities engage with (or are excluded from) various sites of power and how state practice in dealing with minorities (often ostensibly based on Islamic authority) intersects with and informs modern constitutionalism and international law. The book identifies who exactly can be classed as a minority group, analysing in detail the different religious and ethnic minorities across the region. The book also pays special attention to the plight of minorities who are spread between various states, often as the result of conflict. It assesses the applicable domestic legislative instruments within the three countries investigated as case studies: Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, and highlights key domestic remedies that could serve as models for ensuring greater social cohesion and greater inclusion of minorities in the political life of these countries.
Category: Law

From The Ruins Of Empire

Author : Pankaj Mishra
ISBN : 9781429945981
Genre : History
File Size : 55.81 MB
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A surprising, gripping narrative depicting the thinkers whose ideas shaped contemporary China, India, and the Muslim world A little more than a century ago, as the Japanese navy annihilated the giant Russian one at the Battle of Tsushima, original thinkers across Asia, working independently, sought to frame a distinctly Asian intellectual tradition that would inform and inspire the continent's anticipated rise to dominance. Asian dominance did not come to pass, and those thinkers—Tagore, Gandhi, and later Nehru in India; Liang Qichao and Sun Yatsen in China; Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Abdurreshi al Ibrahim in the ruins of the Ottoman Empire—are seen as outriders from the main anticolonial tradition. But Pankaj Mishra shows that it was otherwise in this stereotype-shattering book. His enthralling group portrait of like minds scattered across a vast continent makes clear that modern Asia's revolt against the West is not the one led by faith-fired terrorists and thwarted peasants but one with deep roots in the work of thinkers who devised a view of life that was neither modern nor antimodern, neither colonialist nor anticolonialist. In broad, deep, dramatic chapters, Mishra tells the stories of these figures, unpacks their philosophies, and reveals their shared goal of a greater Asia. Right now, when the emergence of a greater Asia seems possible as at no previous time in history, From the Ruins of Empire is as necessary as it is timely—a book essential to our understanding of the world and our place in it.
Category: History

European Imperialism Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 0199803927
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32.86 MB
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In Islamic studies, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of the Islamic religion and Muslim cultures. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.
Category: Social Science

Still Ours To Lead

Author : Bruce D. Jones
ISBN : 9780815725138
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 51.76 MB
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Is the United States still a "superpower"? How are the rising powers establishing themselves in international politics and security? What is the future of global stability? For over a decade, Bruce Jones has had a front-row seat as the emerging powers—principally China, India, and Brazil, but also Turkey, Indonesia, Korea, and others—thrust themselves onto the global stage. From Delhi to Doha to Beijing to Brasilia, he's met with the politicians, diplomats, business leaders, and scholars of those powers as they craft their strategies for rising influence—and with senior American officials as they forge their response. In Still Ours to Lead, Jones tells a nuanced story of American leadership. He artfully examines the tension between the impulse to rival the United States and the incentives for restraint and cooperation among the rising powers. That balance of rivalry and restraint provides the United States with a continued ability to solve problems and to manage crises at roughly the same rate as when American dominance was unquestioned. Maintaining the balance is central to the question of whether we will live in a stable or unstable system in the period to come. But it just so happens that this challenge plays to America's unique strength—its unparalleled ability to pull together broad and disparate coalitions for action. To succeed, America must adapt its leadership to new realities.
Category: Political Science

Conflict Conquest And Conversion

Author : Eleanor H. Tejirian
ISBN : 9780231511094
Genre : History
File Size : 75.64 MB
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Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion surveys two thousand years of the Christian missionary enterprise in the Middle East within the context of the region’s political evolution. Its broad, rich narrative follows Christian missions as they interacted with imperial powers and as the momentum of religious change shifted from Christianity to Islam and back, adding new dimensions to the history of the region and the nature of the relationship between the Middle East and the West. Historians and political scientists increasingly recognize the importance of integrating religion into political analysis, and this volume, using long-neglected sources, uniquely advances this effort. It surveys Christian missions from the earliest days of Christianity to the present, paying particular attention to the role of Christian missions, both Protestant and Catholic, in shaping the political and economic imperialism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Eleanor H. Tejirian and Reeva Spector Simon delineate the ongoing tensions between conversion and the focus on witness and “good works” within the missionary movement, which contributed to the development and spread of nongovernmental organizations. Through its conscientious, systematic study, this volume offers an unparalleled encounter with the social, political, and economic consequences of such trends.
Category: History