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A New Foundation Of Physical Theories

Author : Günther Ludwig
ISBN : 9783540308324
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.66 MB
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Written in the tradition of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this book aims to clarify and formulate more precisely the fundamental ideas of physical theories. By introducing a basic descriptive language of simple form, in which it is possible to formulate recorded facts, ambiguities of physical theories are avoided as much as possible. In this approach the field of physics that should be described by a theory is determined by basic concepts only, i.e. concepts that can be explained without a theory. In this context the authors introduce a new concept of idealization and review the process of discovering new concepts. They believe that, when the theories are formulated within an axiomatic basis, solutions can be found to many difficult problems such as the interpretation of physical theories, the relations between theories as well as the introduction of physical concepts. The book addresses both physicists and philosophers of science and should encourage the reader to contribute to the understanding of the lasting core of physical knowledge about the real structures of the world.
Category: Science

Foundations Of Space Time Theories

Author : Michael Friedman
ISBN : 9781400855124
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.20 MB
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This book, explores the conceptual foundations of Einstein's theory of relativity: the fascinating, yet tangled, web of philosophical, mathematical, and physical ideas that is the source of the theory's enduring philosophical interest. Originally published in 1983. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Category: Science

Foundations Of Complex System Theories

Author : Sunny Y. Auyang
ISBN : 0521778263
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.53 MB
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Analyzes approaches to the study of complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences.
Category: Business & Economics

Foundations Of Quantum Theory

Author : Klaas Landsman
ISBN : 9783319517773
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.43 MB
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory. This book is Open Access under a CC BY licence.
Category: Science

Physical Foundations Of Cosmology

Author : Viatcheslav Mukhanov
ISBN : 9781139447119
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.32 MB
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Inflationary cosmology has been developed over the last twenty years to remedy serious shortcomings in the standard hot big bang model of the universe. This textbook, first published in 2005, explains the basis of modern cosmology and shows where the theoretical results come from. The book is divided into two parts; the first deals with the homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe, the second part discusses how inhomogeneities can explain its structure. Established material such as the inflation and quantum cosmological perturbation are presented in great detail, however the reader is brought to the frontiers of current cosmological research by the discussion of more speculative ideas. An ideal textbook for both advanced students of physics and astrophysics, all of the necessary background material is included in every chapter and no prior knowledge of general relativity and quantum field theory is assumed.
Category: Science

New Foundations For Classical Mechanics

Author : David Hestenes
ISBN : 9789400948020
Genre : Science
File Size : 59.78 MB
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This is a textbook on classical mechanics at the intermediate level, but its main purpose is to serve as an introduction to a new mathematical language for physics called geometric algebra. Mechanics is most commonly formulated today in terms of the vector algebra developed by the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs, but for some applications of mechanics the algebra of complex numbers is more efficient than vector algebra, while in other applica tions matrix algebra works better. Geometric algebra integrates all these algebraic systems into a coherent mathematical language which not only retains the advantages of each special algebra but possesses powerful new capabilities. This book covers the fairly standard material for a course on the mechanics of particles and rigid bodies. However, it will be seen that geometric algebra brings new insights into the treatment of nearly every topic and produces simplifications that move the subject quickly to advanced levels. That has made it possible in this book to carry the treatment of two major topics in mechanics well beyond the level of other textbooks. A few words are in order about the unique treatment of these two topics, namely, rotational dynamics and celestial mechanics.
Category: Science

The Truth Of Science

Author : Roger G. Newton
ISBN : 0674910923
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.81 MB
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Examines the aims and tools of science for creating theories and explanations of phenomena, with an eye to answering the question of whether or not science actually leads to true comprehension of reality
Category: Science

The Physical Foundation Of Economics

Author : Jing Chen
ISBN : 9789814480420
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31.1 MB
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' All human activities, including mental activities, are governed by physical laws and are essentially thermodynamic processes. However, current economic theories are not established on these foundations. This pioneering book seeks to develop an analytical theory of economics on the foundation of thermodynamic laws. A unified understanding of economic and social phenomena is presented, an understanding that is much simpler than what mainstream economic theory has to offer. Its aim is to revolutionize thinking in economics and transform social sciences into an integral part of the physical and biological sciences. Errata(s) Errata Contents:The Entropy Theory of Human MindThe Entropy Theory of ValueProduction and Competition: An Analytical Thermodynamic TheoryNatural Resources, Technology and Institutions: A Historical PerspectiveMigration, Trade, Education and Fertility: A Spatial PerspectiveFrom Modern Astronomy to Modern Finance: A New Theory of Finance Readership: Academics, graduates, undergraduates and general readers who are interested in the fundamental problems in social sciences. Keywords:Physical Foundation;Economics;Analytical Theory;Entropy;Value;Information;Production and Competition;Human Mind;Resource;TradeKey Features:Proposes an analytical thermodynamic theory of the life sciences and social sciencesPresents analytical theories of value, production and competition that are directly derived from thermodynamic lawsOffers a simple and unified explanation of many fundamental phenomena in our society that are explained away as “imperfection” or “externality” in the current literatureReviews:“The Physical Foundation of Economics is an interesting attempt to use the physics concept of entropy in economic sciences, analogous to its success as Shannon entropy in information science.”Professor Dietrich Stauffer University of Cologne “Jing Chen presents us with a thermodynamic theory of economics which unifies the concepts of physical entropy, information, and economic value. The book is an exciting journey towards the point where economics, physics, and biology come together and provides a deep understanding of the fundamental interconnectedness between the socio-economic world and the biosystem.”Assistant Professor Raluca Iorgulescu Polimeni Siena College, USA “This is an extremely interesting book that attempts to provide an entirely new foundation for economic theory … it is a fascinating read that helps me (not an economist) make a little more sense out of the world.”Books-On-Line “… is an important reference book for those interested in the biophysical foundations of ecological economics. In the struggle to build the edifice of an entropy-based economic theory, Jing Chen establishes a solid foundation.”R I Polimeni and J M Polimeni Siena College, USA Albany College of Pharmacy, USA “This work therefore deserves the attention of readers in several fields of endeavor … I cannot put his book aside easily or quickly. One hopes that further work will come both from Professor Chen and from those who have similar thoughts along these lines to share.”W Batt Executive and Principal Researcher Central Research Group, Inc. “Chen's thermodynamic theory appears to be a powerful one and worth considering. He also manages to explain it in a simple and ordinary way; today's economics texts are replete with complex equations, but the mathematical data here is easy to follow.”Economics and Thermodynamics '
Category: Business & Economics

Foundations Of Quantum Mechanics

Author : Travis Norsen
ISBN : 9783319658674
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.60 MB
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Authored by an acclaimed teacher of quantum physics and philosophy, this textbook pays special attention to the aspects that many courses sweep under the carpet. Traditional courses in quantum mechanics teach students how to use the quantum formalism to make calculations. But even the best students - indeed, especially the best students - emerge rather confused about what, exactly, the theory says is going on, physically, in microscopic systems. This supplementary textbook is designed to help such students understand that they are not alone in their confusions (luminaries such as Albert Einstein, Erwin Schroedinger, and John Stewart Bell having shared them), to sharpen their understanding of the most important difficulties associated with interpreting quantum theory in a realistic manner, and to introduce them to the most promising attempts to formulate the theory in a way that is physically clear and coherent. The text is accessible to students with at least one semester of prior exposure to quantum (or "modern") physics and includes over a hundred engaging end-of-chapter "Projects" that make the book suitable for either a traditional classroom or for self-study.
Category: Science