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A New Foundation Of Physical Theories

Author : Günther Ludwig
ISBN : 9783540308331
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.70 MB
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Written in the tradition of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this book aims to clarify and formulate more precisely the fundamental ideas of physical theories. By introducing a basic descriptive language of simple form, in which it is possible to formulate recorded facts, ambiguities of physical theories are avoided as much as possible. In this approach the field of physics that should be described by a theory is determined by basic concepts only, i.e. concepts that can be explained without a theory. In this context the authors introduce a new concept of idealization and review the process of discovering new concepts. They believe that, when the theories are formulated within an axiomatic basis, solutions can be found to many difficult problems such as the interpretation of physical theories, the relations between theories as well as the introduction of physical concepts. The book addresses both physicists and philosophers of science and should encourage the reader to contribute to the understanding of the lasting core of physical knowledge about the real structures of the world.
Category: Science

The Physical Foundation Of Economics

Author : Jing Chen
ISBN : 9789814480420
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83.40 MB
Format : PDF
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' All human activities, including mental activities, are governed by physical laws and are essentially thermodynamic processes. However, current economic theories are not established on these foundations. This pioneering book seeks to develop an analytical theory of economics on the foundation of thermodynamic laws. A unified understanding of economic and social phenomena is presented, an understanding that is much simpler than what mainstream economic theory has to offer. Its aim is to revolutionize thinking in economics and transform social sciences into an integral part of the physical and biological sciences. Errata(s) Errata Contents:The Entropy Theory of Human MindThe Entropy Theory of ValueProduction and Competition: An Analytical Thermodynamic TheoryNatural Resources, Technology and Institutions: A Historical PerspectiveMigration, Trade, Education and Fertility: A Spatial PerspectiveFrom Modern Astronomy to Modern Finance: A New Theory of Finance Readership: Academics, graduates, undergraduates and general readers who are interested in the fundamental problems in social sciences. Keywords:Physical Foundation;Economics;Analytical Theory;Entropy;Value;Information;Production and Competition;Human Mind;Resource;TradeKey Features:Proposes an analytical thermodynamic theory of the life sciences and social sciencesPresents analytical theories of value, production and competition that are directly derived from thermodynamic lawsOffers a simple and unified explanation of many fundamental phenomena in our society that are explained away as “imperfection” or “externality” in the current literatureReviews:“The Physical Foundation of Economics is an interesting attempt to use the physics concept of entropy in economic sciences, analogous to its success as Shannon entropy in information science.”Professor Dietrich Stauffer University of Cologne “Jing Chen presents us with a thermodynamic theory of economics which unifies the concepts of physical entropy, information, and economic value. The book is an exciting journey towards the point where economics, physics, and biology come together and provides a deep understanding of the fundamental interconnectedness between the socio-economic world and the biosystem.”Assistant Professor Raluca Iorgulescu Polimeni Siena College, USA “This is an extremely interesting book that attempts to provide an entirely new foundation for economic theory … it is a fascinating read that helps me (not an economist) make a little more sense out of the world.”Books-On-Line “… is an important reference book for those interested in the biophysical foundations of ecological economics. In the struggle to build the edifice of an entropy-based economic theory, Jing Chen establishes a solid foundation.”R I Polimeni and J M Polimeni Siena College, USA Albany College of Pharmacy, USA “This work therefore deserves the attention of readers in several fields of endeavor … I cannot put his book aside easily or quickly. One hopes that further work will come both from Professor Chen and from those who have similar thoughts along these lines to share.”W Batt Executive and Principal Researcher Central Research Group, Inc. “Chen's thermodynamic theory appears to be a powerful one and worth considering. He also manages to explain it in a simple and ordinary way; today's economics texts are replete with complex equations, but the mathematical data here is easy to follow.”Economics and Thermodynamics '
Category: Business & Economics

The Unity Of Science And Economics

Author : Jing Chen
ISBN : 9781493934669
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.57 MB
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This book presents a new economic theory developed from physical and biological principles. It explains how technology, social systems and economic values are intimately related to resources. Many people have recognized that mainstream (neoclassical) economic theories are not consistent with physical laws and often not consistent with empirical patterns, but most feel that economic activities are too complex to be described by a simple and coherent mathematical theory. While social systems are indeed complex, all life systems, including social systems, satisfy two principles. First, all systems need to extract resources from the external environment to compensate for their consumption. Second, for a system to be viable, the amount of resource extraction has to be no less than the level of consumption. From these two principles, we derive a quantitative theory of major factors in economic activities, such as fixed cost, variable cost, discount rate, uncertainty and duration. The mathematical theory enables us to systematically measure the effectiveness of different policies and institutional structures at varying levels of resource abundance and cost.The theory presented in this book shows that there do not exist universally optimal policies or institutional structures. Instead, the impacts of different policies or social structures have to be measured within the context of existing levels of resource abundance. As the physical costs of extracting resources rise steadily, many policy assumptions adopted in mainstream economic theories, and workable in times of cheap and abundant energy supplies and other resources, need to be reconsidered. In this rapidly changing world, the theory presented here provides a solid foundation for examining the long-term impacts of today's policy decisions.
Category: Science

Problems In The Foundations Of Physics

Author : M. Bunge
ISBN : 9783642806247
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.51 MB
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This is a collection of technical papers in the foundations and the philoso It takes both "foundations" phy of physics with emphasis on the former. and "philosophy" in their narrow technical senses but it construes "physics" lato sensu, as including all the sciences of nonliving systems. All eleven papers constituting this volume were written for it. The problems tackled in this book concern certain basic concepts, hypotheses, theories, and research programmes in physical science. Some of these problems are topical, others new, but they are all fundamental and the subject of research and controversy. Consequently this volume is expected to serve those students, teachers and researchers who enjoy learning, teaching, discussing or doing theoretical physics. It is addressed to the nine to niners rather than to the nine to fivers. It is expected to attract the theoretician in search for new basic ideas, the teacher eager to perfect his understanding of physical theory and transmit his own zeal and his own doubts, as well as the student anxious to get down to essentials. This book may also interest the mathematician for whom physics offers a challenge (or a good pretext). Finally, it should get the attention of the philosopher of science aware of the advantages of philosophizing on foundations research problems rather than on the popularization of some results of research. There are at least two reasons for valuing foundations research.
Category: Science

Information Theory And Quantum Physics

Author : Herbert S. Green
ISBN : 9783642571626
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.67 MB
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In this highly readable book, H.S. Green, a former student of Max Born and well known as an author in physics and in the philosophy of science, presents a timely analysis of theoretical physics and related fundamental problems.
Category: Science

The Physical Foundation Of Economics

Author : Jing Chen
ISBN : 9789812563231
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61.81 MB
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All human activities, including mental activities, are governed by physical laws and are essentially thermodynamic processes. However, current economic theories are not established on these foundations. This pioneering book seeks to develop an analytical theory of economics on the foundation of thermodynamic laws. A unified understanding of economic and social phenomena is presented, an understanding that is much simpler than what mainstream economic theory has to offer. Its aim is to revolutionize thinking in economics and transform social sciences into an integral part of the physical and biological sciences.
Category: Social Science

Toward A New Foundation For Physics

Author : Joseph H. Spigelman
ISBN : UCAL:B4515128
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.96 MB
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This book presents a framework for resolving some of the crucial paradoxes that trouble thoughtful physicists and philosophers of science. Central to the work is a symbolic object-language (originated by the author) comparable to such other object-languages as computer programs, engineering flow-charts & chemical formulas. It differs from them, however, in being vigorously derived from one of the simplest & least controvertible of ideas: the otherness of any two entities, even identical ones (if two, then one & another, otherwise, just one). It therefore admits only those representations, expressed in the symbolism, that are strictly compatible with the idea -- unlike computer programs, which can represent any concept, however absurd or physically impossible. The author employs his symbolism to construct models of physical processes. He shows how these models make it possible to resolve the paradoxes at the heart of contemporary physics, including particularly those implicit in the recent definitive demonstration of the violation of "Bell's Inequality." Among these implications is that past events can be influenced by present acts of observation. This radical departure from traditional conceptions of causality has caused a crisis in physics. With that crisis, this book is basically concerned.
Category: Science

Foundations Of Physics

Author : Mario Bunge
ISBN : 9783642492877
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.17 MB
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This is not an introduction to physics but an analysis of its founda tions. Indeed, the aims of this book are: (1) to analyze the form and content of some of the key ideas of physics; (2) to formulate several basic physical theories in an explicit and orderly (i. e. , axiomatic) fashion; (3) to exhibit their presuppositions and discuss some of their philosoph ical implications; (4) to discuss some of the controversial issues, and (5) to debunk certain dusty philosophical tenets that obscure the under standing of physics and hinder its progress. To the extent to which these goals are attained, the volume can serve as a companion to studies in theoretical physics aiming at deepening the understanding of the logical structure and the physical meaning of our science. In order to keep the book slender, whole fields of basic physical research had to be excluded - chiefly many-body physics, quantum field theories, and elementary particle theories. A large coverage was believed to be less important than a comparatively detailed analysis and reconstruction of three representative monuments: classical mechan ics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics, as well as their usually unrecognized presuppositions. The reader is invited to join the project and supply some of the many missing chapters - or to rewrite the present ones entirely.
Category: Science

Quantum Theory Informational Foundations And Foils

Author : Giulio Chiribella
ISBN : 9789401773034
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.31 MB
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This book provides the first unified overview of the burgeoning research area at the interface between Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information. Topics include: operational alternatives to quantum theory, information-theoretic reconstructions of the quantum formalism, mathematical frameworks for operational theories, and device-independent features of the set of quantum correlations. Powered by the injection of fresh ideas from the field of Quantum Information and Computation, the foundations of Quantum Mechanics are in the midst of a renaissance. The last two decades have seen an explosion of new results and research directions, attracting broad interest in the scientific community. The variety and number of different approaches, however, makes it challenging for a newcomer to obtain a big picture of the field and of its high-level goals. Here, fourteen original contributions from leading experts in the field cover some of the most promising research directions that have emerged in the new wave of quantum foundations. The book is directed at researchers in physics, computer science, and mathematics and would be appropriate as the basis of a graduate course in Quantum Foundations.
Category: Science